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Cardiovascular and Immune/Lymphatic Systems Essay

1. What signs and symptoms did Greg exhibit when he was in the house? Some signs and symptoms Greg experienced were thirst, dizziness, and turgor.

2. Was Mrs. Myron correct when she said that Greg was dehydrated? Which signs and symptoms are consistent with this notion? Mrs. Myron thought that it was not necessary to seek medical treatment. Do you think she was correct? I believe Mrs. Myron was correct when she said Greg was dehydrated. All his signs and symptoms are symptoms of dehydration. I would probably have taken him to the hospital because he passed out and continues to do so, another factor would have been his temperature. I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part II—”The High School Football Game”


1. What were Greg’s signs and symptoms before the game and during the warm up? Can you think of any reasons why Greg exhibited these signs and symptoms? Before the game and during warm up Greg experienced dizziness, loss of appetite, flushed, and sweaty. Greg may be experiencing dehydration.

2. Greg is taken to the hospital after being injured during the game. What problems do you think the physicians will find with Greg when they examine him, or do you think he is only suffering from dehydration? Greg has probably experienced a concussion from the hit he took.

I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part III—”The Next Day In The Hospital”


1. What are Greg’s new signs and symptoms? Do you have a diagnosis for Greg’s problem? Greg is now feeling nauseous, weak, and has a headache. I think he has a concussion.

2. The chart below shows that when baroreceptors detect a drop in arterial blood pressure the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart and the smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries and the veins. Write increase or decrease to indicate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the variable in each numbered box. (3 points)

I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part IV—”The Neurologist”


1. What evidence suggests that Greg suffered from a mild concussion? Greg feels nauseous, weak, and has a headache which indicates a concussion.

I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part V—”The Follow-Up Visit”


1. What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are lying down? What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are standing? What happens to the pressure of the blood as it travels against gravity in a standing person? When you are lying on your back, blood is able to flow more easily. If you move from a seated or supine position to a standing position, there may be a momentary drop in your blood pressure, baroreceptors sense this drop and signal the heart to beat faster.

2. The baroreceptor reflex insures that the pressure of the blood entering the brain remains within defined limits, irrespective of body position. Under these circumstances, predict the blood pressure in the aorta of a standing person and a person who is lying flat on their back.

I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part VI—”The Diagnosis” Questions

1. How would a pacemaker help Greg’s condition? It would keep his heart rate at more of a steady pace.

2. If a pacemaker is implanted to control Greg’s heart rate, what life changes will be forced upon him? Do you think Greg will ever play competitive sports again? I do not think it is recommended he play competitive sports. He will have to watch his physical activity and not want to exert himself too much.


Resistance Is Futile…Or Is It?: Part I—”HIV and the Immune System”


1. What is the difference in how a virus and bacteria replicate and affect cells of the body? Viruses cannot replicate without infecting a living cell. Unlike bacteria, that have everything it needs to reproduce, viruses need to use a living cell’s organelles in order to replicate.

2. In general, how does humoral and cellular immunity differ? Cellular immunity does not involve antibodies and humoral does.

3. Understanding that HIV is a retrovirus (a virus that uses reverse transcriptase), answer the following questions:

a. What is reverse transcriptase?
Transcriptase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template in reverse transcription.

b. How is a retrovirus different from other viruses?
A retrovirus composed of DNA and RNA virus with the most complex replication, so it is different from a regular virus.

c. How does a retrovirus infect a cell and reproduce?
On encountering a host cell, the retrovirus attaches itself to receptors on the surface of the host cell’s membrane. Once inside the cell, the capsid opens, releasing RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cell’s cytoplasm.

4. In regards to reviewing the immune system, answer the following questions:

a. What is the difference between a T-cell and B-cell?
B-cells mature in bone marrow; T-cells mature in the thymus.

b. What is the difference between innate immune response and adaptive immune response? Innate immunity refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body. Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response. The adaptive immune response is more complex than the innate.

5. In regards to the immune system and HIV, answer the following questions:

a. Individuals with HIV commonly die from pneumonia or cancer. Why is this the case? HIV lowers your immune system so other diseases or sicknesses can often be deadly because the patient’s immune system is so weak.

A Case of Pharyngitis: Part I—”The Little Boy”


1. The pediatrician described Jason’s pharynx, uvula, and tonsils as swollen and red. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation, and how does each relate to changes in the blood vessels at a site of inflammation? Signs of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, and pain. The blood vessels encounter vasodilation.

2. The exudate on Jason’s tonsils consisted primarily of neutrophils, and the CBC that was performed indicated that the number of neutrophils in his circulation was increased. What role do neutrophils play in the resolution of a bacterial infection? What role do macrophages have within fighting infections? Neutrophils are attracted to the site of infection by chemotaxis. They are able to phagocytize and digest pathogens.

3. Jason’s physician noted that Jason’s cervical lymph nodes were enlarged, a condition referred to as lymphadenopathy. Describe the structure and function(s) of lymph nodes, and list the other organs and tissues that comprise the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes are small bean shaped glands. They act as filters that sieve off the harmful substances brought by the lymphatic channels. Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, MALT, BALT

4. What can trigger a fever and what are its benefits in terms of combating an infection? Infections can trigger a fever, which can be beneficial to try to kill the infection.

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