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Capstone Project Essay

1.0 Background of the Study

Picardal Institute of Science and Technology (PIST) is an institution founded last July 12, 2008 and was located at the 2nd floor of Michaella’s Plaza, Andres Bonifacio Avenue, National Highway, Tibanga, Iligan City, province of Lanao del Norte, Philippines. This institution offers different courses under Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) like Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Associate in Computer Technology, Two Year Graduate in Midwifery Program, Computer Hardware Servicing NC II, Food and Beverage Services NC II, Housekeeping NC II, Shielded Metal Arc Welding NC I and II, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding NC II, Bookkeeping NC III and Programming NC IV. They also offers short courses like Computer Literacy, PC Repair Basic and Advanced AutoCAD, Web Development, WordPress, Photoshop, English Proficiency, Welding Enhancement and Pipefitting.

Since from its founding year, PIST in its 6th year in service of providing quality education to its students, they faced so many circumstances and one of it, is the problem in Cashier Department. As of today, the Cashier tends to do her job manually with so many paper works to be done, and so we, the researchers propose a computerized system. This Cashiering System will provide a computerized storing of student’s data, the enrolment assessment of the enrollee with the amount they need to pay during the training and with the entire breakdown. This system will also help the cashier into less paper works and less time to consume in inputting the student information; it can also generate cash flow report, list of student in every semester and daily reports of income. By using this system the cashier will be able to back-up her files, store information of student’s in database and restrict the unauthorized personnel to access this information.

The cashier is not the only one who could benefit to this project but also the entire school along with the students, where they could be rest assured that the Cashier Department will give them real status when it comes to their financial standing.

1.1 Conceptual Framework

Through the given input from the student that is the Student’s Personal Information, course and subject load that will be the process and save into the database where we can add, edit, delete and save the student’s number of units as well as their payments and we will be able to assume that through this information we could come up to the expected output that is the summary of student accounts, inquiry of accounts, billing statement and assessment of fees.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study aims to provide a computerized system that where specifically seek an answer to the following problems.
1. Many paper works.
2. No cashiering system yet.
3. No back-ups and easy to copy, edit and/or delete files without authorization.
4. Manual billing statement.
5. Transactions lack of security.
6. Could be used by unauthorized personnel.
7. Uneasy to search.
8. Summarizing data and writing reports takes a lot of time.
9. Data Duplication.

1.3 Objectives
After identifying the problems we came up to these following objectives.
1. To lessen paper works to Cashier Department.
2. To provide a cashiering system.
3. To provide a proper storage with back-up features.
4. To generate a computerized billing statement.
5. To make a tangible system with full security.
6. To provide a system that restrict unauthorized user.
7. To provide a more easy way to search information inside the system.
8. To generate an automated summaries of every transactions.
9. To avoid redundancies of data in the database.

1.4 Significance of the Study
This study was made to find out that the use of cashier system will lessen the time for the transaction of billing statements and payment. Also in using this system it can recognize the person involve in this study.

This study will benefit the following person:
Cashier of Picardal Institute of Science and Technology – it can help them to lessen their tasks in preparing of summary of billing statements. Students – it will provide them an easy way to pay their bills and they will benefit the accurate status of their tuition. To provide good services to students. To the Future Researchers – it can help them as a guide to enhance more from their future thesis.

1.5 Scope and Limitation
1.5.1 Scope
The scope of this study focuses only on receiving payments from and process charges of students and also on tracking deposits and payments against student accounts.

1.5.2 Limitation
The study is based on the PIST’s System flow and policies in cashiering, thus its capability is according to PIST’s needs only.

Definition of Terms
Assessment – refers to the total amount of which the enrollee enrolled in that particular academic and/or school year. It is where the student identifies the breakdown of their tuition per academic and/or school year. Billing Statement – it is a monthly or per examination summary of the current and/ or balances of the student’s tuition in that academic and/or school year. Breakdown – is the way that where the student able to see where all of his/her payments go. Cashier – it is a person who works at a store or other business who takes money, makes change, issues receipts and otherwise helps to facilitate customer transactions. Cashiering System – it is a System to receive payments from and process charges for students, employees, and the general public.

Cashier Department – is responsible for receiving and distributing funds, as well as maintaining records. The cashier’s department enables to keep records of dividends and other payouts and receiving payments from the students and /or clients. Computerized System – A computerized system is a computer system with a purpose. When we talk about a computer system, we are simply referring to the hardware and software that comprise the computer system. But when we talk about a computerized system, we are referring to a function (process or operation) integrated with a computer system and performed by trained people.

Database – A database is an organized collection of data. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring this information. Student – is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. Is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university.


This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies gathered from different sources to support the findings and results of the study.

2.0 Related Literature
Most institutions and establishments that we visit are using computerized systems to easily cater the needs of the customers or clients. It will also provide a better service to its clientele as well.

The system will properly accommodate the needs of the students and the parents in taking the statement of accounts. It will provide an accurate, fast and smart statement of accounts to students that are up-dated for the school administrator and the students. It will also provide students to view their own statement of accounts. When having a computerized system we will be able to have an advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of having a computerized system are: Saving Time – One important advantage offered by computerized accounting is it can save time for small business owners, who often must wear many hats. Calculations for functions like payroll and billing can be performed quickly and efficiently by accounting software programs designed for small businesses. You can also access accounting records quickly without having to sift through stacks of paper. This can allow you to spend more time working with clients or performing marketing functions to help your business grow.

Reduced Errors – Manual “number crunching” presents the possibility of human error, which can be costly to a small business owner who may be in a hurry to complete an accounting task. Computerized accounting programs can reduce calculation errors that can result in inaccurate inventory counts, billing for too large or small of an amount or incorrect sales receipt totals. Having accurate accounting information can also help you avoid tax errors that could lead to problems with the Internal Revenue Service.


Dependence on Machinery – On the downside, as with all machines, computers can fail from time to time, and a computer crash could leave you unable to perform accounting tasks and even result in the loss of information if files are not backed up properly. If you and/or your staff has little accounting knowledge and relies heavily on your computerized accounting program to do all the work, you may be at a loss as to what to do when your system or computer fails. Security breaches can also result in lost or stolen data.

Expense – Another disadvantage is that if you’re converting from a manual to mechanized accounting system, you’ll need to bear the expense of software and possibly even new computers. Training on how to use a computerized system can result in lost productivity due to the associated downtime and learning curve. As time goes by, you’ll likely need to spend money on software upgrades as new versions become available. When your computers malfunction, you’ll need to pay for potentially costly repairs or replacements. Fewer errors mean fewer headaches – there are countless ways in which errors can creep into your transactions. The more data entry required, the greater the chances for error.

So a cashiering system which is able to supply the required information on the cashier’s behalf, while minimizing data entry, is highly desirable. Put another way, the more automation applied to the process, the better. Provide outstanding service – it will reduce excessive waiting in line, eliminate delays in restoring the paid-up status of a student account, avoid egregious errors such as posting payments to the bank, provide for rapid production of duplicate receipts, cancel non-paying students more promptly to accommodate returning students, accepts payments even when the student system is down and automatically release the appropriate students holds when an account is made current. Note: Author & year

2.1 Related Studies
According to the research we made, there are other institutions here in Iligan City that uses computerized systems for Cashier Department that would assessed the students in a more easy and handful way. With this computerized system, it lessens the time consumed in accommodating all the students who will made transactions in the cashier department.

Note: Author & year

Chapter III

The topics are given a deeper explanation in this chapter and the researchers will present the study. It consist of the research method, research instrument, interview, questionnaire, construction, validation, survey, administration and retrieval, research locale, population and sampling techniques, data gathering procedure, project design, project development, testing and operating procedures.

3.0 Project Design
Through observation and interview we come up to these designs and coding.

Essay Topics:

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