Post-Angkor period was known as the less documents, inscriptions in Khmer historical time during the entering Chou Ta-Kuan who visited Angkor. Moreover, it was the period which the king Chan had restoration of some of the temple. During that time also provided the documentary about permanent shifts in Cambodia`s economy, foreign relation, language that verify the structure, values, the performance of Cambodia`s society.
I. The Shift from Angkor to Phnom Penh
We can inference about the shift of city based on Chines`s evidence which tell us about the reasons that made the king change the city from Angkor to Phnom Penh. The first reason was Cambodia`s geographical center of gravity in fourteenth century connected with the rapid expansion of Chiness`s maritime trading. Then declining of Angkor after king Jayavarman VII death and the failure of nerve and major losses of population. Other related with rise of Ayudhya to the west and connected with complicated problem until 1860s between Cambodia`s king and Thai`s king. The suitability of Phnom Penh site that locate along the Chhutomok river ‘four face’ at the confluence of Mekong and the Tonlesap and it made Cambodian easy to trade with Loas , Chiness through this river to receive the incoming goods from China.
On the other hand, it is likely that the shift of city to southeastern Cambodian elite seemed occurred a momentary trump, later legitimized and prolonged of regional interest and perhaps those belong to the overlord at the expense of people lingering near Angkor. The foreigners who came to trade in the new city might speak Malay from Champa or Indonesian island because it left in Cambodian `s language as ‘kompong’ mean ‘village or market’. Other foreigners were Chines who busily trading in the 1550s In the late fifteenth century, the social organization, bureaucracy and economic priorities of Angkor. The other reasons for the change were the emulation factor affecting both in Phnom Penh and Ayudhya and there were always had warfare.
II. Cambodia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
The narrative history of fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were a little and known throw some brief events about Thai attack on the Angkor capital and then removed. The influence of Thai and Vietnamese over Cambodia and between pro-Thai and pro-Vietnamese Cambodia`s fractionate the court. The first European wrote about the Cambodia was Tome Pire between 1512 and 1515. He described the kingdom as a warlike one whose ruler ‘obeys on one. In 1593, Thai prepared to against Lovek which forced the Khmer king to look overseas for help. But in 1595 and they took the valuable things we known as Preah ko and Preah Keav inside the statuses, there were sacred book, in gold, that they could learn formulae and anything in the world. The last five year of sixteenth century are well documented in European sources.
The two adventurers named Blas Ruiz and Diego de Velso illuminate three themes that were to remain important in Cambodia history. First, the king was susceptible to blandishment and promises on the part of visitors who came as outer space were honored with bureaucratic title and given ‘sruk’ to govern and princesses for wives. Second theme was the revolution in warfare brought on by the introduction of firearms, particularly naval cannon, which were taken to use as the major part in all subsequent Cambodian ware. The third theme was that by the end of sixteenth century, the Cambodian king and his courtiers had become entangled in the outside world, and symbolized at the time by the multitude of foreign traders resident in Lovek and Phnom Penh.
III. Values in the seventeenth-century Cambodia
If we compared the events that happened in seventeenth century to the events in nineteenth century, we would see some differences as in nineteenth century Cambodia was brought to its knees by foreign power and was isolated from outside world the same power of Thailand and Vietnam. But in seventeenth century, Cambodia still reasonably independent and Cambodia traded freely with many countries. We could infer that a slow degradation of values from the seventeenth century based on the influence of Thai. After, Cambodia in seventeenth century as a nation followed by that were later watered down, abused, or forgotten. The other values, seldom acted out by a monarch, are those that delineated proper conduct for people.
The best way to understand about the thought-world of seventeenth century is to look at the Reamker because Reamker kept so many Cambodians attraction was its combination of elegance and similarity was about the conflict of good and bad evil. There are three values of Reamker in Khmer society, first is a statement of Theravada Buddhist which designed in poem, second a defense of hierarchy and the status quo, third the contrast between what is wild and what is civilized.
VI. Vietnamese and Thai interference in Cambodia
Vietnamese power affected on Cambodian royal family was able to spill along pro-Thai and pro-Vietnamese. The Vietnamese intrusion had three long-term effects, first the takeover the Prey Nokor by customs agents in 1620s and seventy years later by Nguyen administrations meant that Cambodia could not access to the outside world from maritime. Second, the Nguyen had created institutionalization of control more than two hundred years. Third, by taking over the delta and extending de facto control over Gulf of Siam. In addition to Vietnamese power, there was Thai that forced and used pressure on the king persisted into the 1770.
In 1772, The Thai burned down Phnom Penh. Thai interference in the whole nineteenth century for protecting Cambodian Buddism and related institutions against persisted Vietnamese. The reasons was perhaps the king`s failure to deliver protections and stability understand king`s relevance. In this problem was because the king always wanted to protect his power and throne which made the king to seek help from the foreigners. One king depended on Thai while other depended on Vietnamese but as a result the country got nothing and made Khmer died, lived in the fear, uncomforting and Khmer only known the war and lost many provinces to frontier country.