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Calcium Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Ap Chemistry – Gravimetric Lab

By filtering and weighing the carbonate after it has precipitated, the mass and moles of CaCO3 could then be found; with these values, a molar mass of M2CO3 can be found. Using gravimetric analysis, it has been determined that the unknown Group 1 metal carbonate compound is K2CO3 (potassium carbonate). Experimental Sources of Error: A) The first source of error had to do with the precipitation section of the lab. Not only is possible, but it is almost guaranteed that the CaCO3 did not precipitate to its fullest extent. Attaining a precipitate that is 100% pure and is exactly of the composition represented by its chemical formula would be extremely difficult. A second source of error was in the filter…

Stoichiometry Of A Precipitation Reaction

Procedure 1. Put on your goggles. 2. Weigh out 1.0 g of CaCl2·2H2O and put it into the 100-mL beaker. Add 25 mL of distilled water and stir to form the calcium chloride solution. Use only distilled water since tap water may have impurities that interfere with the experiment. 3. Use stoichiometry to determine how much Na2CO3 you will need for a full reaction. 4. Weigh the calculated amount of Na2CO3 and put it in a small paper cup. Add 25 mL of distilled water and stir to make a sodium carbonate solution. 5. Pour the sodium carbonate solution from the paper cup into the beaker with the calcium chloride solution. A precipitate of calcium carbonate will form instantly. 6….

Complexometric Determination

Introduction Using a Lewis base neutral molecule to donate electron pairs (ligands) to a Lewis acid metal ion center to form a single cluster (complex) ion. When the complex ions forms with a metal ion (chelation) the ligand used is called the (chelating agent). EDTA acts as a great chelating agent due to the Nitrogen and Oxygen donating an electron pair to the metal ion center to form an octahedral complex. The metal ions especially with a +2 charge or higher are the reason for water hardness to form on various objects known as “scum”. Calcium ions are typically the most common contributing factor for water hardness so this experiment uses CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate) to analyze the hardness of an…

Soaps and Detergents

The goal of this project was to make, and test four soaps, and two detergents. The purpose of making four different soaps and two detergents was needed in order to decide which one would be best for the environmental group to use in the future that would allow for the safest cleanup of an oil spill while not harming the animals or the environment in the process. It was necessary to test the impact of the four soaps and two detergents by analyzing their different properties based off of their specific characteristics and the wastewater left over from the vacuum filtration procedure. This procedure had to be undertaken in order to confirm which of the soaps and detergents synthesized is…

Pchem Formal Report

Synopsis: The main aim of the experiment is to find out the amount of calcium carbonate in toothpaste through back titration since calcium carbonate does not dissolve in water. A roughly weighed amount of calcium carbonate is mixed with hydrochloric acid and then titrated against sodium hydroxide. When the indicator turns from pink to orange, the volume of sodium hydroxide used is taken down. After doing some calculations, the average percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste is 19.2%. This average percentage is relatively close to the expected percentage of 20% thus this experiment is a success. Generally after performing the experiment twice, the smaller the mass of toothpaste used, the more volume of sodium hydroxide is needed to neutralise the…

Osteoporosis and Bone

Calcium helps to keep bones strong but just drinking milk doesn’t mean that you won’t get osteoporosis. You may be genetically inclined to get it even though you drink milk every day. There are also many other things that contribute to getting osteoporosis, like not eating enough calcium, doing steroids causes bones to become weak and look like sponges when looking at it under a microscope. Scenarios A,B, and C help to explain that it’s not just the calcium that can cause osteoporosis Scenario A: 1. The skeleton is a metabolically active organ that undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts followed by formation of bone matrix through the osteoblasts that subsequently…

Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide

1. Roughly fill a beaker with 200cm? of distilled water. This does not need to be accurate because samples will be taken from this. 2. Add solid calcium hydroxide, a spatula at a time, and stir to aid the dissolving. 3. Continue to add the calcium hydroxide until no more will dissolve i. e. you can see the solid at the bottom, even after much stirring. The amount of calcium hydroxide needed should be around the value of 0. 3g. 4. Fold a piece of filter paper in half, and in half again and pull one side open to form a cone. 5. Place this cone inside the funnel. 6. Set up a container underneath the funnel. 7. Pour the…

Kidney Stones, is there a solution?

Introduction Kidney stones are a painful and dangerous urinary disorder that could cause severe cramping, block flow of urine, and sometimes cause a fever that “about 5 % of American women and 12 % of men suffer from at some point in their lives” (Kidney Stone Disease). “Most small stones measuring less than 5mm or 6mm can persist in the body with medical expulsive therapy, will typically pass within a few days to a few weeks” (Kidney Stones Overview). Kidney stones are also referred to as renal calculi and are formed in the kidney as a result of buildup of minerals that are being excreted from the body as waste. This buildup can be caused by supersaturation which is when…

Hardness of Water

The hardness of water was determined using the methods of titration, conductivity, and pH analysis. The mean and uncertainty of CaCO3 is 134±36.0 ppm. An error that could have potentially happened could be that the equivalence point was not correctly established causing inaccurate data. BACKGROUND: 1In hard water there is a high amount of mineral content present in the water. Most of the mineral content that is present in water are Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. Even though hard water does affect a person’s health, hard water can still have harmful effects in an industrial environment, appliances in a household setting, and certain cleaning task. 2For example, when hard water repeatedly goes through pipes, the water causes deposits that eventually build…

Percent Yield of Calcium Carbonate

The purpose of this experiment is to examine the percent yield of a precipitate in a double displacement reaction. A solution of calcium citrate and sodium carbonate were mixed together, then the products were filtered out as so only the precipitate remained. The filtered paper was then dried and the mass of the precipitate in the experiment divided by the theoretical mass of the precipitate from the calculated gave the percent yield. The percent yield that was acquired is about 69.1%. The chemical reaction that took place was that sodium displaced calcium in a solution of calcium nitrate, and that calcium displaced sodium in a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting products were solid calcium carbonate and aqueous sodium nitrate…

Naming the Minerals

Name the minerals below. Then, insert a percentage of how certain you are in your identification. Finally, explain your percentage of certainty: What was confusing about this mineral? What other minerals do you think it could be? Remember, the minerals in the virtual lab include seven of the following: borax, calcite, corundum, graphite, gypsum, orthoclase feldspar, pyrite, quartz, talc, and topaz. Identification of Mineral Percent Certain Explanation of Certainty Example: Fluorite 80% certain I am almost certain this mineral is fluorite, but I am not completely sure. Fluorite and gypsum are both white, shiny, have white streaks, cleave, and show no reaction to acid. However, the specific gravity of this mineral is 3.18, which is higher than gypsum, so I…

“Happy Cows”

Discussion Questions After analyzing the “Happy Cows” campaign, that was developed for the California Milk Advisory board to promote Real California Cheese, I feel the campaign has been so successful is because they found a way to connect with customer base by creating character (the cows) that everyone can relate to. Another reason, is that is was advertised nationally as opposed t just California, which gave the campaign a larger audience. The role and importance of the Real California Cheese certification mark in implementing the positioning and IMC program elements is that the mark assures them that consumers that the cheese they are purchasing is natural and is made in California, exclusively from California milk. The seamark was placed just…

Complexometric Determination of Water Hardness

When a polyatomic ligand with multiple lone pairs of electrons available for bonding to a central metal ion forms a complex with a metal ion, a process known as chelation takes place. Metal ion impurities can be found by using disodium salt of EDTA to determine the concentration of M2+ by complexometric or chelometric titration. Erichrome Black T makes it easy to see when the EDTA has completely chelated the metal impurities. When the metal cation is still present in the water, the solution will be a complex with a pink tint. Once enough EDTA has been added to the M2+ solution the metal ions complex to the EDTA leaving the indicator solvated causing a color change from pink to…

Complexometric Determination of Water Hardness

Abstract The water hardness for unknown water sample number 40 was determined. From the results of the two complexometric titrations, the water hardness of the unknown sample was calculated to be 250.9 ppm CaCO3, which agrees with the ranges of acceptable water hardness in the city of Phoenix and Tempe Arizona. Introduction When rainfall picks up impurities from the soil, ions of sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, and other metals are dissolved into the water. These impurities are what cause residues left on glassware from the reaction with the soap used for cleaning. Water hardness is from the metal ions with a +2 charge or higher being dissolved into the rainfall. When reporting water hardness, it is reported in units of…

Complexometric Determination of Water Hardness

The water hardness for unknown water sample number 40 was determined. From the results of the two complexometric titrations, the water hardness of the unknown sample was calculated to be 250.9 ppm CaCO3, which agrees with the ranges of acceptable water hardness in the city of Phoenix and Tempe Arizona. Introduction When rainfall picks up impurities from the soil, ions of sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, and other metals are dissolved into the water. These impurities are what cause residues left on glassware from the reaction with the soap used for cleaning. Water hardness is from the metal ions with a +2 charge or higher being dissolved into the rainfall. When reporting water hardness, it is reported in units of mg…