After studying and extracting information from all the relevant work done previously, how does there searcher know which references, articles, and information should be given prominence in the literature survey? For this question, the answer is the researchers should start looking for the literature survey that straight as the information from the unstructured and structured interviews that is being gathered. Also for the reviewing, the literature on the subject part of this time assistances the researcher to focus more on the interviews more importantly on certain aspects found to be important in this study.
“Because literature survey is a time-consuming exercise, a good, in-depth interview should suﬃce to develop a theoretical framework.” Discuss this statement. The literature survey its important and becoming easy to follow the progression of the research from the first step of managers knowing the broad problem part. And to initial data assembly (literature survey), to improve the theoretical framework based on the literature review and that showed by experience and instinct, to framework of hypothesis for testing the questions of the survey.
6. Why is it important to consider basic research design issues before conducting the study and even as early as at the time of formulating the research question? The research design is important because of the time and cost; the researchers should be constraining the less of what would be the ideal researcher design. The researcher strength have to conduct a cross-sectional instead of a longitudinal study, it’s better to do a field study than a larger sample size, and improving the research design decision and resolving for a lower level of technical care because of resource constraining.
9. How has the advancement of technology helped data gathering? Discuss the beneﬁts and drawbacks. The technological advancement it allows us to collect and processing and more data because it need more data to be collected more than human can collect technology its important to help the researchers to have the right information
10. What are the main reasons for choosing observational methods over other methods? It because observation concerns the planed watching, recording, analysis and interpretation of behavior, actions or events. In addition, other data collection methods present rudiments of insincerity into the research environment, observation defines events. Researchers can also use observational methods when independent are unwilling to express themselves. 12. Discuss how ethnography and participant observation are related. Ethnography is the research methodology that has origins in anthropology. And a research procedure in which the anthropologist carefully detects, records, and involves in the everyday life of another culture and. Participant observation is more related to ethnography.
However, there is different people that have different thoughts about the particular relationship between the both. Ethnography and participant observation are from time to time used interchangeably in the works. Ethnography includes the involvement in the specific culture, of the social group a people of Samoa. In addition, observing behavior finished a extended the engagement in the field where ethnography takings place – is stared as one of some methods for ethnographic research. Other methods, such as interviews and questionnaires, might also be to collect the data in the ethnographic research.
16. How are multiple methods of data collection and from multiple sources related to reliability and validity of the measures? Data is collected to measure the correlation of some items with the idea to be saved. Procurement data from multiple sources and complete multiple methods is optional, when data obtained the goodness of data is measured complete test of validity and reliability. Validity is to express how well a technique, tool or process measures a specific concept, and reliability specifies how constancy and consistently the tool taps the variables.
The data have to be obtained in a way that lends itself to easy classification and coding. The source of data is extremely dependent on the situations and design of the test and the reliability differs with interval reliability of the source, the validity is related to the design of the test.
17. Explain in your own words MAX, MIN, CON (maximize, minimize, control) Maximize is the research hypothesis and max the differences between the dependent variables. Minimize is the error or random of the measurement instruments and that might have high errors of measurement Control is when the assume cause and impact the relationships between X and Y variables, also let say that A it might be effect on the dependent variable Y.
21. Describe the diﬀerence between attitude rating scales and ranking scales and indicate when the two are used. The basic difference is that the attitude scale contain of or a grouping of rating scales designed to measure all or some features of human attitude. A rating scale controls the quality of something. A ranking scale determines the quality comparative to others, using the average as a standard. In a question, a rating scale asks you to rate some items individually on a numerical scale, and a ranking scale would have you place the items in order.
22. “A valid instrument is always reliable, but a reliable instrument is not always valid ”. Comment on this statement.
A valid instrument can have both consistency and stability but might not be measuring what it is envisioned to measure the low validity. If an instrument does, measure the concept that it theoretical to measure, it will be reliable, a valid instrument will be reliable, but a reliable instrument does not have to be valid.
28. How can you assess the reliability and validity of qualitative research?
It is important for qualitative research studies is criticized for lacking the reliability and validity. The criticized is made on data collected as the individuals may not response correctly or the observations made by the researchers are not good enough. Reliability and validity is very important in the research work. Many critics question the validity of qualitative data is questioned by many critics.