Every day we face situations that affect our diary to live. The children have a beautiful daily beginning, until they come to their school environment. There they found truly friends, but also children who damage them. The school harassment or “bullying” is a social problem that affects the majority of the children in our country and the world. The school harassment is the intimidation that a child creates, with power or force and aggression on one or more children to call the attention or simply to avoid to be one more.
The “bullying” since better it is known refers to any act of physical or verbal aggression that it realizes one or more children against his homonyms. At the global level there is a phenomenon that affects the education of children and young people. This is manifested within the centers of education and has been for decades a serious problem that can bring repercussions to the students. Garcia (2011) indicates that the bullying cause serious damage to the mental and physical health in the people involved.
It is inferred that the bullying is a problem, to the extent that we see as the students identify to this as an evil that harm permanently or part. Another reason is that it breaks with the expectations of society, which searches for a good school environment and therefore, it becomes an antisocial behavior reprehensible. To learn this behavior we must begin with the main participant, the aggressor. The aggressor is usually mostly feel need to dominate, are impulsive, show little empathy and are presented as people physically stronger.
Olweus (1980) reaffirmed that it is natural to assume that they have developed a certain degree of hostility toward the environment, such feelings and impulses can make injure or harm to others causing them satisfaction. The aggressors may be people who work, study or provide services within the school and its grounds. We emphasize that the aggressor is not only the student but that involves other people. The spectator is an indirect aggressor, which according to Trautmann (2008), is the hearing of the aggressor and in which the aggressor is stimulated or inhibited by them.
Any type of attacker can reach express violence with direct contact, psychological, emotional and the use of technology. These, the aggressor and the spectator or cooperator assault to another person, the victim, which suffers from all the aggressions. Galvez (2008), mentions that the victims usually are children that do not have the resources or skills to react, are little sociable, sensitive and fragile. Children who suffer from bullying are rejected by the other students and live in constant search of acceptance.
These behaviors can have serious consequences for the physical and mental health of the victim permanently or part. From the right to education, physical, mental and the life, is that I am looking for studying this phenomenon as a social problem so that, identify their mode of operation, how to treat it and prevent it. Bullying The term bullying (Olweus, 1978) is now common in the literature on the topic of bullying among schoolchildren, to refer the situation of sustained violence, mental or physical, guided by an individual or by a group, directed at another individual in the group, who cannot defend themselves.
The problem, being a new phenomenon, if it adopts new dimensions and it is worrying that our industrialized society that seems to have reached a certain level of welfare, employment of abuse and violence in school environments, paradoxically being detected ever so more alarmingly early age. The analysis of the problem offers some things to consider. It can be verbal, physical or psychosocial. Sometimes presents socially acceptable ways such as competitiveness academic, sports, social success, which in itself makes others feel inferior.
It is necessarily repetitive behavior and causes pain at the time of the attack and sustained, to create an expectation on the victim of being white future attacks it is characterized by the dominance of the powerful over the weak in any context. The dynamic character bullying is “expansive” since its inception; a specific episode of abuse happens to be an assiduous dynamics of exclusion, violence and impaired socialization. It comes as a group phenomenon, from the moment that requires the support of the group and therefore, must be within the network of relationships that it is generated.
Ramirez (2002) mentions that bullying is usually violent events among students and on occasion, there have been reports of violence by individuals outside the classroom to students. They identify certain behaviors as other forms of violence that affect the relationship between students and teachers, such as absenteeism, lack of participation and punctuality. It should be noted that in many of the cases, a student’s absences constant victim of harassment are to avoid being attacked, mocked at school and choose not to go to the classroom. Being one of the most common characteristics a victim of bullying. Areas affected by bullying
Professor Dan Olweus was initiated investigations on the subject of bullying. At the beginning of 1970, Olweus began their investigations within schools in Norway, presenting a problem about assaults on persons; it is noteworthy that the institution had no interest on the subject. It was not until the 1980s that three young people between 10 and 14 years old committed suicide as a result of the activity of aggression upon them by their peers, thus arousing the attention of educational institutions on the problem. Education it is essential for the progress of a person and the country, also that it is a constitutional right.
This phenomenon happens in all centers of education and in all its facets. Obviously affect the education of students to large scale and their mental, physical and emotional health. Because of this, it is vital that you consider this phenomenon as a problem and identify ways to treat it and prevent it. To achieve this, we must attack its root, which is located within the school facilities. It is important to study the bullying at the family level, since education starts at home, teaching behaviors to avoid that children create behavior hostile or conversely, too quiet.
Also of utmost importance that the family is in constant orientation in order to keep your children from bullying and be able to identify when they are victims of this. Rodrigo (2004) says that family relations continue to be a relevant element in the analysis of behavior and lifestyle of the teenager. Aviles (2002) indicates that both the structural aspects of the educational institution and its dynamics are very important in explaining and, above all, prevent abuses among equals at the school.
Polanin (2012) suggests that researchers and administrators of the school should consider the implementation of programs that focus on the supplementary behavior of transient bullying intervention and prevention programs. Cepeda, Pacheco, Garcia and Piraquive (2008), indicate that to learn if there is bullying, we must recognize that there is a relationship of power, power-submission, by one or more assailants on the victim and if the aggression has been consecutively. Attacks could be physical with some degree of aggression or psychological.
Salmivalli (1999), comments that the aggressor is classified into two types, the predominantly dominant with antisocial tendency and the antisocial predominantly related to a low self-esteem. Recent research Del Prado (2011) notes that there has always been bullying and that many of the victims are marked for life. He mentions that according to statistics, 12 out of 100 students suffer bullying by peers. It indicates that victims choose to suffer isolation and a terrible fear of going back to school, clinging to silence as his only witness.
Also infers that contrary to myth, the aggressor is not always bigger and stronger. This can be any child with low self-esteem need to get attention from their peers. He advises that we must ensure that the victim signals show how, insulation, etc. depressive symptoms. It concludes that a good interaction of the institution and parents is crucial in preventing this phenomenon, but that happened is the responsibility of the school. Traulsen (2011) this has been a drastic change of bullying. One of the new ways is cyber bullying, which is committed to social networks or technological means.
Indicates that bullying can occur because of race, color, religion, sexual preference etc… The victim did not reach the necessary maturity, fails to adequately address this situation. It is difficult for parents to detect that your child is being targeted because they tend to isolate themselves and hide the facts. For this family, school and government are essential to help combat this evil. The author infers that it is time to take drastic action against this phenomenon that is often taken for granted, so that in this way we ensure viable and proper education.
Martinez (2005) investigated bullying and specific problems or patterns that occur in schools. The author conducted a review of the main conflicts of bullying, with the purpose of investigating and detecting possible solutions. We mentioned some factors that influence antisocial behavior as social inequality, the media, the motivation of the student and others. Refer some of antisocial behaviors that arise in the school as classroom disruption, indiscipline, vandalism, physical violence, psychological, social and in some cases, sexual assault.
The conclusion is that using any direct remedy to remedy the phenomenon, beyond programs and techniques will be effective in resolving this conflict. Barcelo (2011) indicates that violence in the family learned and interactions with the environment influence bullying. He reports that for us to understand this phenomenon, teachers need to see this phenomenon as one of violence. Defines bullying as a type of violence where there are three participants who consist of the offender, victim and the spectators. The stalker uses different types of techniques from physical, verbal, psychological, social and racial harassment.
As a result, the victim feels isolated and sometimes even can lead to dropout, suicide or retaliate against the aggressor to death. From here you have the need to intervene with this phenomenon and use punitive methods to the aggressor. And finally work with the victim, improving self-esteem and school environment. Teresa (2010) indicates that in the phenomenon of bullying are direct and indirect aggressors. Live is one who commits indirect aggression and has been the viewer. Mostly the harasser is narcissistic and needs of people who support or encourage them to commit their acts.
Here is where the participation of the viewer aggressor, who plays a double role. On the one hand supports the harasser but the other is solidarity with the victim. This becomes a stalker and manipulator. Mention other accomplice’s classification called conscious or unconscious, the first known his actions and still participates. The second is usually a person close to the stalker who acts without realizing the facts. Study concludes that there are certain to classify accurately, what kinds of people are bullies. What if it could be located, is that bullies mostly come from the upper class.
Methods to assess bullying Arzoz (2011) in his Thesis Analysis of the Situation and Proposed Intervention in an Education Center recommends an evaluation of intervention programs and techniques carried out in schools about bullying. He argues that it should take an individualized program in each school that meets the needs of them and take into account existing features. He points out that there is a shortage of technical or individualized treatments with students. Refers to the method of questionnaire on campuses is a good tool to detect bullying and work on time or remedy in cases where necessary.
On the other hand emphasizes the validity of the method Pikas and teaching social skills as a factor in prevention. The author concludes that having prevention programs, we would reduce the phenomenon in question. Garcia (2011) states that as bullying phenomenon. This postulates that the lack of values, economics, drugs, among others, may be determining factors for violence in the perpetrator arises. Also emphasizes the serious damage this phenomenon generated on both sides: bully-victim, and that the best strategy is prevention.
For this, we have developed a program that is based on parameter to the prevention and students involved in bullying. Within the prevention distinguishes three lines starring: education in emotions, feelings and values ?? in cooperative group work and democratic management of coexistence. In the situation of students involved have proposed six programs which are: a) conflict resolution, b) peer support, c) quality circles d) development programs empathy, e) and f assertiveness programs ) the Pikas method. Emphasizes that despite the myths no spend this very worrying phenomenon that prevails in all schools at all levels.