Briefly describes the difference between Storage Area Networks (SANs) and Network Attached Storage (NAS) system? Storage Area Networks (SANs)| Network Attached Storage (NAS) system| A SAN is a dedicated network that provides access to various types of storage devices including type libraries, optical juke boxes and disk arrays.| Network Attached storage system are networked appliances which contain one or more hard drives that can be shared with multiple heterogeneous computers.| A SAN is a local network of multiple devices that operate on disk blocks.| A NAS is a single storage device that operate on data files| A SAN commonly utilizes Fibre Channel interconnects. | A NAS typically makes Ethernet and TCP/IPconnections.|
Identify and briefly describe each of TCP/IP’S five layer?
The basic structure of communication networks is represented by the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model. This model is structured in five layers. An end system, an intermediate network node, or each communicating user or program is equipped with devices to run all or some portions of these layers, depending on where the system operates. These five layers, are as follows: Application layer
Host to host or transport layer
Network access layer
The physical layer covers the physical interface between a data transmission device and a transmission medium or network. This layer concerned with specifying the characteristics of the transmission medium the nature of the signals the data rate and related matters.
The Aplication layer, determines how a specific user application should use a network. Among such applications are the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and the World Wide Web (WWW) .
Host to host or transport layer
The Transport layer, lies just above the network layer and handles the details of data transmission. Layer 4 is implemented in the end-points but not in network routers and acts as an interface protocol between a communicating host and a network. Consequently, this layer provides logical communication between processes running on different hosts.
Network access layer:
The Network layer specifies the networking aspects. This layer handles the way that addresses are assigned to packets and the way that packets are supposed to be forwarded from one end point to another.
This internal protocol(IP) is used in this layer to provide the routing functions across multiple networks. The function of the internal layer is to allow procedure to take in order for data traverse of multiple interconnected networks to take place. This protocol is implemented in both the end system and routers.
Contrast the major characteristics of WANs with those of LANs & MANs?
WANs| LANs| MANs|
Its is wide Area Networks| It is Local Area Netwoks | It is Metropolitan Area Networks| It consist of a number of interconnected switching modes| Lan is a communication networks that interconnected a variety of devices and provides a means for information exchange among those devices.| It occupies a middle ground between LANs and WANs.| | | |
How many quantization levels are needed to represent each of the following sets of symbols characters or states?
a) The uppercase alphabet A,B……Z
8*26 = 208 bits
b) The digits 0,1…….9
8*10 = 80 bits
c) 256 different colours
8*256 = 2048
d) 10000 Han characters
8*10000 = 80000
e) Four billion computing devices
8* four billion = 32 billion
Commonly, medical digital radiology ultrasound studies consist of about 25 images extracted from a full-motion ultrasound examination. Each image consists of 512 by 512 pixels, each with 8 bits of intensity information. a. How many bits are there in the 25 images?
1 Image = 512*512 pixels
1 pixel = 8 bits
8*512 = 4,096 *512 = 2, 097,152 * 25 images = 52, 428, 800 bits in the 25 images
b. Ideally, however doctors would like to use 512*512 * 8 bits frames at 30 fps (frames per second). Ignoring possible compression and overhead factors, what is the minimum channel capacity required sustaining this full-motion ultrasound? 512*512 = 262,144 * 8 bits = 2,097,152 * 30fps = 62,914,560 bits
c. Suppose each full motion study consists of 25s of frames. How many bytes of storsge would be needed to store a single study in up comprossed form? 600 MB = 629145600 bytes *8 = 5,033,164,800
512*512=262144* 8 bits = 2,097,152 * 30 fps = 62,914,560 *25 sec = 1,572,864,000 5,033,164,800/1572864000 = 3.2
Do some online research on the characteristics of software as a service (Saas) platform as a service (Paas) and infrastructure as a services (Iaas) write a short paper describe the different between these services and
identifying some of te major providers of each type?
SaaS or software as a Service refers to the delivery of applications over the Internet as a service that can be accessed by users. Instead of users having to install and maintain software, they simply access this through the Internet. This frees them from the management of complex software as well as hardware and explains why SaaS in Australia continues to gain great popularity among users.
The applications offered by SaaS are at times referred to as hosted software, software on demand or web- based software. The provider generally manages access to the applications, availability, performance as well as security. This relieves customers of the burden of installing, maintaining or updating hardware or software. To access these applications, all a user requires is an Internet connection.
Some of the characteristics Software as a Service will offer you and which will help you answer the question what is SaaS are as follows:
It is a multitenant architecture- this means that all users and applications make use of a single, common infrastructure as well as a code base that is maintained centrally. This enables vendors to innovate more quickly thus saving valuable time that would initially have been spent in maintaining different versions of out-dated codes.
Allows for easy customisation – every customer is able to customise applications so that they can fit into their business processes and without necessarily affecting the common infrastructure. These customizations are rather unique to each user or company and are often preserved through making upgrades.
Provides better access – SaaS improves access to data as you can access it from anywhere as long as you have an Internet connection. This makes it easier for members to collaborate with one another as they can access the same information irrespective of where they are located.
Many organisations are turning to SaaS because it is easier to implement and does not require users to pay any up-front licensing fees. It is also inexpensive and hence its popularity with small and medium sized companies.
In today’s economy, every business is out to save some money. SaaS seems to be working positively for many businesses and a good number has already embraced it. Although large companies have been a little hesitant to embrace it because of the limited functionality that comes with it, many others have already taken up this technology and only time can tell what its future will be.
Major service providers of SaaS are NetSuite, Rackspace, Softlayer ,Go Grid, Microsoft, salesforce etc.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a way to rent hardware, operating systems, storage and network capacity over the Internet. The service delivery model allows the customer to rent virtualized servers and associated services for running existing applications or developing and testing new ones.
Major service providers of SaaS are IBM, Orangescape,
Google, OS33, Gigaspace.
Infrastructure as a Service is a provision model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components. The service provider owns the equipment and is responsible for housing, running and maintaining it. The client typically pays on a per-use basis.
Characteristics and components of IaaS include:
Utility computing service and billing model.
Automation of administrative tasks.
IaaS is one of three main categories of cloud computing
service. The other two are Software as a Service (SaaS)
and Platform as a Service (PaaS).
Infrastructure as a Service is sometimes referred to as
Hardware as a Service (HaaS).
Major service providers of IaaS are Gogrid, Hp.
Logicworks, Amazon web services,