Since mid 1970s, East Asia and Latin America with specific references to India and Brazil respectively have recorded tremendous growth in their Human Development Index score. It is only the African continent that has lagged behind in issues of social justice, development and globalization due to poor governance, overdependence on donor support and the low life expectancy due to the effect of HIV/AIDS. A considerable growth of India in terms of globalization and improved economy has been noted in the last two decades.
By 1900, the United States had become a member of the economic core, while Brazil remained mired in the semi-periphery (DeWitt, pp. 4-10). Factors of consideration in the measurement of human development of a particular nation that include life expectancy, adult literacy and the purchasing power parity (PPT) indicate that these two nations have moved a notch higher on the HDI scale. These nations have also noted a considerable improvement in other matters such as gender equality, respect for human rights and political and social freedoms.
According to Human Development Report, the Human Development Index for India is 0. 169. This gives the country a rank of 128th out of 177 with data. This indicates that India has recorded positive changes in its HDI ranking. A deeper examination of important issues related to the well being of people such as income gives a better understanding on how a country’s level of development can be tracked. Relations between Brazil and India seem to be blooming recently, favored by a mix of domestic and international developments.
Together with an expanded terrain of common interests in multilateral political and economic matters, both countries share the trend of perceiving bilateralism as a stimulating and useful learning process (Mo’nica, pp. 143-164). India and Brazil can no longer qualify to be graded as developing nations. Gender issues in India that involve deeper understanding of the dissimilarities between different sexes, male and female reveal an improved overall rating.
The allocation of natural resources, job opportunities and responsibilities provide an indication on how incentives and rewards are given in relation to gender. The existences of institutions that champion for gender equality have recorded improved achievements in their goals. India has taken much consideration on special and practical needs of women. The constitutions of India and Brazil have gender and equality in their introductory statements and further enshrined in the different sections of the constitutions.
Further constitutional amendments and reforms have been undertaken in the years to level the playing field in terms of available opportunities for both sexes. The ratification of a number of international conventions and human rights aimed at appreciating the role of women in society indicate India’s record in matters of social justice. A good example is the ratification of the 1993 convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. Furthermore, the number of women in India joining panchayats has been growing by the year.
The 1993 constitutional amendment that requires that a third of those elected to the local governing authorities be women is a clear indication that India has taken gender issues seriously. National policy on women empowerment in 2001 is specifically geared towards empowering women from the grassroots level. 2. 0 Brazil and India: Developed or developing? 2. 1 India as a Developed Nation The Indian economy has always been on the upward surge and the reality that it is a part of the developed world cannot be brushed aside.
Indian economy has recorded a 6-7 per cent growth and in the last three years achieved an average growth rate of 8 per cent (Mo’nica, pp. 101-145). Further increase in these figures is very possible considering that India still has opportunities for the improvement in its infrastructure, agriculture and the service industry. It is projected that if this trend continues or accelerated further, India is capable of doubling its GDP within the next 10 years. Globalization Immense improvement in trade systems and the measure of inflow of capital are to the benefit of India.
The concept of globalization that has made trade easier and led to the “death of distance” has contributed significantly to trade, immigration and development issues in India. The dynamics of a global economy is being reshaped by the economic emergence of two Asian giants, China and India. How the world’s two most populous countries manage globalization as they pursue economic reform and liberalization will impact significantly their societies, the rest of Asia, and the world (Kelly, Rajan and Goh, pp. 10-15).
While factors of endowments such as land, capital and labor were used as yardsticks for measuring the strength of countries and economy, today globalization has brought about other important factors such as political and institutional reforms. The determination of the country’s income flow is predominantly based on the demand of its products, services and natural resources by other countries. India has grabbed this window of trade opportunity by reforming its industrial sector and coming up with products and services that are demanded all over the globe.
Increased business activities have led to the modernization of India’s ports, airports and railway system. Such infrastructural development has contributed to the improved Human Development Index thus making India a member club of the developed nations. The drastic shift from production of labor intensive crops to primary commodities has made India an ideal example of an industrialized nation. Furthermore the utilization of the service sector that includes transport, banking, construction, public administration and security and radical reforms contributed significantly to its higher standings.
The advancement in the information and communication technology sector and constitutional freedoms to access to information have facilitated a robust and informed elite of businessmen and businesswomen from India with knowledge on the understanding of world’s economy and global trade. The availability of skilled labor in the human resource sector of an economy is a determinant on the level of a country’s overall growth in the knowledge-based sector service. This sector is one of the most essential as globalization and its aspects demands constant supply of professional and technical services for the various segments of the economy.
India is a global leader in the supply of this crucial sector of development and is at the top position for global consultations and migration of physicians and medical personnel to other parts of the world including the United States and the United Kingdom. India has extensively made use of the decrease in price tariffs in the transport and communication sector due to globalization. The development of the containerization has made the world a global village and thus distances do not matter. The use of internet and cheap telephone calls has furthermore simplified trade deals.
India has effectively made use of these sectors thereby maximizing the advantages that come along with them. Furthermore, grading India as a developing nation is failing to live with the reality that development in human index is based on many factors that change from time to time and may then take a long period to discover. India has had a long walk in this area and as such has recorded big advancement in its sectors of economy making it one of the giant economies in Asia. Globalization has thus contributed not only to the economy but also to the service sector.
Understanding that a country does not have to rely on the productions of cheap products to record growth and that related products such as productions of flash-disks or hard-disk drives for use in computers manufactured in another country can create a significant shift from the traditional forms of trade beliefs. Advantages taken in skills to adapt to changes in the global trade has cushioned India from the adverse effects of shifting and constantly insecure changes in the major world economy. Managerial competence and technical know-how have been used in India to advance its service sector of the economy.
Measures regarding the integration of Asian financial market and further trade and regional cooperation are likely to work the advantage of India’s economy and its improvement on human development index standings. Social Justice Health indicators show that India has almost achieved the effort of completely bringing polio to eradication due to reforms in its health sector. Free information and drug dispensing has contributed to sharp decline in Tuberculosis and the provision of generic drugs from its pharmaceutical industries has helped keep the prevalence of HIV/AIDS to below one percent.
The efficient management of programs such as the National Aids Control Programs revised, National Tuberculosis program and the National Polio Eradication Program have given more support to efforts directed at controlling the adverse effects of these diseases. Sub-Saharan Africa has suffered massively due to the effects of HIV/AIDS and thus has a long way before joining the club of developed nations. Furthermore, India has made remarkable inroads towards the achievement of a universal primary education program.
The 2001 Sarva Shirksha Abhiyan (SSA) elementary education program by the education sector has made access to school by the poor record commendable improvement. The emissions of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide (CO2) have made the world to rethink and provide tangible solutions to save the future generations. India and its industry contribute to 4. 6% of global emission – an average of 1. 2 tones of carbon dioxide per person. This is a testimony that India is an industrialized nation and thus a contributor to world toxic carbons. However, India is signatory and has gone ahead to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
This provides an indicator on its position as an economic giant and its concern for the environment and the future generations. Its readiness to cut back its emissions shows a fully informed nation prepared to change its industry sector and adopt safer systems of manufacturing and engaging in industrial activities that pollute the atmosphere. The birth of India as a secular nation was realized in 1947 with the divisions of two of its large lands into an Islamic nation, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The eastern part of India always referred to as East Pakistan later became to be known as Bangladesh.
Freedom of religion is deeply enshrined in its contribution and its preamble describes India as a secular nation. The top government officials of India are composed of individuals with different religion backgrounds. It has had an instance of a Hindu president, a Sikh prime minister, a Christian leader of congress party a defense minister who is a catholic and a Muslim vice president. This shows that India has attained a level in which leadership positions do not take care of religious background but integration of these different religious achieved by the realization of a common state.
Religious tolerance and the freedom to equally exercise religion publicly is an indicator on the level of democracy. 2. 2 Brazil as a Developed Nation The democratization process in Brazil has accelerated so fast. Politically Brazil is emerging as a centre for democracy after year of military dictatorships associated with violations of human rights and denial of political freedoms. The election of a civilian president through the electoral vote system formed a foundation for the beginning of democratization process (Hanashiro, pp.
103- 105). Furthermore, Brazil has excellent relationships with other countries all over the world and does not involve itself in actions that undermine the sovereignty of other institutions. Its is today considered one of the pillars of democracy in Latin America and an invitation to join the Group eight most industrialized and developed nations is an indicator as to the confidence other countries bestow on Brazil in terms of its governance records, social justice, development index and other related factors.
The civil society in Brazil is a vibrant sector that keeps the government in tracks on matters related to human rights and justice. While there have cases in which human rights abuse have been recorded, the rate at which this improvement has taken place must be appreciated. With a staggering population of over 140 million people, the authorities must face serious challenges of dealing with crime and providing measures that limit excess use of force in dealing with radical elements. Brazil has had significant improvement in the creation of political space.
The existence of different political parties and organizations championing for political space or freedom is a clear indicator that serious changes have taken place. The constitution of Brazil has democracy issues in its pre-amble and further defines the importance of democratic space, freedom of association and achievement of full potential and happiness in its contents. Protection of citizens and individuals regardless of their political associations is a further indicator of its commitment to being not only a politically stable country but also a nation that upholds the rule of law and justice to all its populace.
Brazil is a major player in the production of many products. Through its manufacturing industries, Brazil produces automobiles, computers, aircrafts and boasts of a nuclear reactor. Development structures are ever on the increase and a standing example is the solution of the problem of acute shortage of petrol globally between 1973 and 1980. It achieved a commendable success by switching from the conventional and traditional use of petroleum to the use of renewable source of energy for its automobile industry.
It does has recorded a major contribution towards cutting down of green gases and carbon dioxide (CO2) because of the use of sugar and alcohol to drive these domestically manufactured hybrid cars and automobiles. This success in alternative energy development means that Brazil’s economy can move forward even in cases of acute shortage of petroleum and its products. The development of the aerospace industry is another boost for the development of Brazil as a developed nation. It is a manufacturer of aircrafts and spare parts of these machines that are then sold to more than 40 countries worldwide today.
These aircrafts meets the international standards of air safety and come at competitive prices in comparison to those manufactured in Europe. The construction industry in Brazil is recognized worldwide and notably in Latin America with contracts in Africa and Asia. Construction of dams, expansion of the road network, building of houses, airports and ports are carried out by engineers and professionals trained in Brazil and by construction firms registered and chartered by the Brazilians themselves.
They can still explore the impact of five policy areas on employment creation: macroeconomic policy, trade liberalization, foreign direct investment, labor market regulations and policies, and social dialogue (Auer and Ernst, pp. 223-239). Furthermore, development in other sectors of the economy is likely to take place as there is still a big opportunity for development. The existence of a sophisticated information communication and technology is a clear sign of its thirst for a faster achievement of its development goals by the application of modern methods.
Brazil boosts of an excellent system of communication where all people have the freedom of access to information and as such is a pillar of development in Latin America. Trade with other nations has gone high since 1990 due to production of quality products that creates demand thereby promoting the local based industries. The quick application and encouragement of use of modern methods of transport and communication has accelerated the speed at which Brazil can be said to be globalized. Tourism in Brazil has overtaken many tourist destinations and countries all over the world.
In Latin American, Brazil has the best tourist sports such as beautiful beaches of Rio de Janeiro, the eastern ports of Fortaleza and its all the year summer attract tourists from all over the globe. Presence of the Iguacu Falls at the boarder with Argentina offers a unique and spectacular view that cannot be compared to any spot in the world. The constitution of Brazil further provides for the respect of religion practice and upholds the freedom of religion. There are no double standards in cases of religion and all citizens irrespective of their religion affiliations are considered equal.
Its laws go further in prohibiting all forms of discrimination based on religion. It is one of the religious democratic countries that do not demand registration of a religious group. In the recent two centuries, there have never been open reports of arrests and detention of religious leaders or stakeholders. 3. 0 Conclusion Economic achievements of India and Brazil for the past three decades qualify them to join the club of developed nations. Respect for human rights, rule of law and order, industrialization, research in fields of health and information and communication technology confirm this statement.
Further achievement in the provision of universal primary education, gender equality and availability of job opportunities are further indicators. The invitation of these two nations together with Japan and Germany attest further proof to the confidence of the world in the institutions and governance. Brazil and India thus qualify to be developed nations. References: Auer, P. and Ernst, C. , Meeting the Employment Challenge: Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico in the Global Economy. ISBN 9221179478, 9789221179474, International Labor Organization, pp. 4-6 (2006) DeWitt, J.
, Early globalization and the Economic Development of the United States and Brazil. ISBN 0275971996, 9780275971991, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Hanashiro, O. , Democratizing State and Civil Society in Brazil. 43 (3), pp. 103-105, (2000) Kelly, D. A. , Rajan, R. S. and Goh, G. H. L. , Managing globalization: lessons from China and India: inaugural conference of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. ISBN 9812564942, 9789812564948, Published by World Scientific, (2006) Mo’nica, H. , Brazil–India Relations, South Asian Survey, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 143-164 (2008)