Levels of Organization
Why do we need to learn about levels of organization?
Helps us to understand how our world fits together
Helps us to organize the structures of living systems and how they all work together
1. Organelles – “ little organs”
– Small structures inside of a cell that perform a specific function. – Examples include mitochondria, nucleus, and Golgi body
2. Cell- Basic unit of structure & function in life. Cells are the building blocks of all living things.
3. Tissue – A group of the same kind of cells working together for a specific purpose
4. Organs – A part of an organism made up of tissues that do a specific job.
5. Organ Systems – A group of organs that work together for a specific job.
9. Organism – Any living thing.
10. Population -A group of the same organism living together.
– This word is often used to describe the size of the group. 11. Community- Several populations living together and interacting in some way. 12. Ecosystem – All the biotic communities plus all abiotic factors. MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY The word philosophy is derived from the Greek words philia (love) and sophia (wisdom) and means “the love of wisdom.” Pythagoras was said to have been the first man to call himself a philosopher; in fact, the world is indebted to him for the word philosopher.
It is said that when Leon, the tyrant of Philius, asked him of who he was, he said, “a Philosopher” and he likened the Philosopher to spectators at ancient games. Before that time the wise men had called themselves a sage, which was interpreted to mean those who know. Pythagoras was more modest. He coined the word philosopher, which he defined as one who is attempting to find out. According to him, men and women of the world could be classified into 3 groups: (1. those that love pleasure) (2. those that love activity) and (3. those that love wisdom.)
MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is the rational attempt to formulate, understand, and answer fundamental questions.
NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY
1. Philosophy is a set of views or beliefs about life and the universe, which are often held uncritically. We refer to this meaning as the informal sense of philosophy or “having” a philosophy. Usually when a person says “my philosophy is,” he or she is referring to an informal personal attitude to whatever topic is being discussed. 2. Philosophy is a process of reflecting on and criticizing our most deeply held conceptions and beliefs. These two senses of philosophy— “having” and “doing”— cannot be treated entirely independent of each other, for if we did not have a philosophy in the formal, personal sense, then we could not do a philosophy in the critical, reflective sense. Having a philosophy, however, is not sufficient for doing philosophy. 3. Philosophy is a rational attempt to look at the world as a whole. Philosophy seeks to combine the conclusions of the various sciences and human experience into some kind of consistent world view.
Philosophers wish to see life, not with the specialized slant of the scientist or the businessperson or the artist, but with the overall view of someone cognizant of life as a totality. 4. Philosophy is the logical analysis of language and the clarification of the meaning of words and concepts. . Certainly this is one function of philosophy. In fact, nearly all philosophers have used methods of analysis and have sought to clarify the meaning of terms and the use of language. Some philosophers see this as the main task of philosophy, and a few claim this is the only legitimate function of philosophy.
5. Philosophy is a group of perennial problems that interest people and for which philosophers always have sought answers. Philosophy presses its inquiry into the deepest problems of human existence. Some of the philosophical questions raised in the past have been answered in a manner satisfactory to the majority of philosophers. Many questions, however, have been answered only tentatively, and many problems remain unsolved. “What is truth?” “What is the distinction between right and wrong?” What is life and why am I here? Why is there anything at all?
IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY
1. The study of Philosophy enables us to think carefully and clearly about important issues. 2. In studying Philosophy, we learn to take a step back from our everyday thinking and to explore the deeper, bigger question which underpins our thought. 3. The focus in the study of Philosophy is to learn not what to believe, but how to think. 4. Studying philosophy sharpens your analytical abilities, enabling you to identify and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses in any position. 5. It hones your ability to construct and articulate cogent arguments of your own. 6. It prompts you to work across disciplinary boundaries and to think flexibly and creatively about problems which do not present immediate solutions. 7. Because philosophy is an activity as much a body of knowledge, it also develops your ability to think and work independently.
BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
Historically, philosophical concerns have been treated under these broad categories: 1. Logic, 2. Metaphysics, 3. Epistemology, 4. Value theory A. LOGIC Logic is the systematic study of the rules for the correct use of these supporting reasons, rules we can use to distinguish good arguments from bad ones. Most of the great philosophers from Aristotle to the present have been convinced that logic permeates all other branches of philosophy. The ability to test arguments for logical consistency, understand the logical consequences of certain assumptions, and distinguish the kind of evidence a philosopher is using are essential for “doing” philosophy
12. B. METAPHYSICS Another traditional branch of Philosophy traditionally known as metaphysics. For Aristotle, the term metaphysics meant “first philosophy,” discussion of the most universal principles; later the term came to mean “comprehensive thinking about the nature of things.” It means, usually, the study or theory of reality. The question of metaphysics is: what is reality? What is real? Is reality some kind of “thing”. Is it one or is it many? If it is one, then how is it related to many things around us? Can ultimate reality be grasped by five senses, or is it supernatural or transcendent? Metaphysics undoubtedly is the branch of philosophy that the modern student finds most difficult to grasp. Metaphysics attempts to offer a comprehensive view of all that exists. It is concerned with such problems as the relation of mind to matter, the nature of change, the meaning of “freedom,” the existence of God, and the belief in personal immortality.
13. C. EPISTEMOLOGY The technical term for the theory of knowledge is epistemology, which comes from the Greek word episteme, meaning “knowledge.” In general, epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the sources, nature, and validity of knowledge. There are three central questions in this field: (1) What are the sources of knowledge? Where does genuine knowledge come from or how do we know? This is the question of origins. (2) What is the nature of knowledge? Is there a real world outside the mind, and if so can we know it?
D. VALUE THEORY Value theory is the branch of philosophy that studies values. It can be subdivided into ethics, aesthetics, and social and political philosophy. In broad terms ethics concerns itself with the question of morality. What is right and what is wrong in human relations? Within morality and ethics there are three major areas: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Descriptive ethics seeks to identify moral experience in a descriptive way. We seek to identify, within the range of human conduct, the motives, desires, and intentions as well as overt acts themselves.