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Brain Structures and Functions Worksheet Essay

Provide a brief description for each of the following functions:
1. Basal ganglia
The basal ganglia is part of the corpus striatum and is in the cerebral hemispheres. It is made up of the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleas and controls cognition, movement coordination and voluntary movement. 2. Corpus collosum

The corpus collosum is made up of nerve fibers and separates the cerebrum into a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere. This part of the brain connects the right and left sides and also controls the communication between the two sides. It controls eye movement, tactile localization and keeps a balance between arousal and attention. 3. Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is part of the cerebral cortex. It controls how we perceive and understand sounds as well as our memory, speech and our emotional responses. 4. Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe is part of the cerebral cortex. It controls how we perceive what we see and how we recognize colors. 5. Frontal lobe
The frontal lobe is part of the cerebral cortex. It’s the part of the brain that we use for problem-solving, decision-making, and planning. 6. Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and it’s the most developed area in the brain. This part of the brain controls body functions, which includes muscle movement, sensory impulses and touch sensation. The cerebrum also controls organization, planning, intelligence level, personality as well as the way we think, process and understand language. 7. Spinal cord

The spinal cord is made up of nerve fibers and runs from the brain to the spine. The spinal cord sends the signals that go to and from the brain and the rest of the body. 8. Cerebellum
The cerebellum is made up of both white matter and of thin gray matter that is folded and layered on the outside of the cerebellum. It includes neurons that we use to process data and controls our coordination, balance, and equilibrium. 9. Medulla

The medulla is part of the hindbrain. Its functions are that it controls the functions of our nervous system such as digestion, breathing, sneezing and swallowing. The medulla also sends the nerve signals between the spinal cord and the brain. 10. Pons

The pons is the part of the hindbrain that connects the cerebral cortex and the medulla oblongata. This is the part of the brain that controls arousal, sleep, and our nervous system functions. It also sends the sensory signals to and from the cerebellum and cerebrum. 11. Hippocampus

The hippocampus is part of the limbic system. It is shaped like a horseshoe and controls our navigation and our body orientation, our emotional responses and how we process new memories. It is also where our memories are stored. 12. Amygdala

The Amygdala is a composed of nuclei and is located in the temporal lobe. The amygdala controls memory, arousal, emotional responses, hormonal secretions, and how our nervous system responds to fear. 13. Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is divided into three sections: a posterior lobe, an intermediate lobe, and an anterior lobe. The pituitary gland produces growth hormones. It regulates endocrine function and hormone production and stores the hormones made by the hypothalamus. 14. Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is part of the limbic system. It controls our autonomic, endocrine and motor functions. It also controls homeostasis, regulates our intake of food and water and regulates our sleep-wake cycle.

15. Thalamus
The thalamus is located underneath the cerebral cortex. The thalamus controls
our motor movements and our sleep and wake states. It also sends sensory signals to the cerebral cortex and receives all of the visual, somatosensory, and auditory sensory signals.

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