A neuron is a cell in the brain or another part of the nervous system that transmits information to other cells. Neuron cells are the information processing components of the brain responsible for receiving and transmitting information. Each part of the neuron plays a role in the communication of information throughout the body. Neurotransmitters
A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance through which one neuron sends a message to another. Neurotransmitters are transmitters that give off chemical reactions to neurons. There are several types of neurotransmitters and each type controls different functions like muscle control and triggers.
An Axon is a long, arm like structure that transmits information on to still other neurons. The axon is the elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings and transmits the neural signal. The larger the axon, the faster it transmits information.
Myelin sheath is an insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses, formed from the cell membrane of the Schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system and from oligodendroglia cells. Myelin sheaths three main functions include are protection of the nerve fiber, insulation of the nerve fiber and increasing the rate of conduction of nerve impulses.
Dendrites are a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body. Dendrites are treelike extensions at the beginning of a neuron that help increase the surface area of the cell body. These tiny protrusions receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma.
Synapses are junctions between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter. To connect two neurons by providing a space between an axon terminal of one neuron and a dendrite of another neuron, so neurotransmitters that are released by an axon terminal can diffuse across that space to reach the dendrite and either initiate the possibility of the second neuron to fire or cause a muscle cell to contract.
A cortex is the upper part of the brain; site of complex, conscious thinking processes. The cerebral cortex is involved in numerous functions of the body including: determining intelligence, determining personality, motor function, planning and organization, and touch sensation.
A synaptogenesis is the universal process in early brain development in which many new synapses form spontaneously. Synaptogenesis is a process involving the formation of a neurotransmitter release site in the presynaptic neuron and a receptive field at the postsynaptic partners, and the precise alignment of pre- and post-synaptic specializations.
A synaptic pruning is a universa process in brain development in which many previously formed synapses wither away. Synaptic pruning refer to neurological regulatory processes, which facilitate changes in neural structure by reducing the overall number of neurons and synapses, leaving more efficient synaptic configurations. Pruning is a process that is a general feature of mammalian neurological development.
A myelination is the growth of a fatty sheath (myelin) around the axons of neurons, enabling faster transmission of electrical impulses. The myelin sheath is a protective covering that surrounds fibers called axons, the long thin projections that extend from the main body of a nerve cell or neuron. .
Ormrod, J. (2014). Educational psychology: Developing learners. (8th ed., pp. 22-24). Pearson Education, Inc.