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Brain Function Essay

A Neuron is a specialized nerve cell that receives, processes, and transmits information to other cells in the body. Basically, it is the messenger cell responsible for receiving and transmitting information. Neurons are the information processing components of the brain, each part of the neuron is responsible for receiving and transmitting information. Each neuron please do use role in the communication of the flow of information throughout the body.

Neurotransmitters

neurotransmitter Chemical substance
through which one neuron sends a
message to another.
A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that helps communicate information throughout our brain and body by relaying signals between neurons. neurons to occur. Numerous neurotransmitters affect the way a person behaves, learns, emotions, and sleep. Some also affecti mental illnesses. Some examples of neurotransmitters which affect our learning and development are; Acetylcholine affects a persons voluntary movement, learning, memory, and sleep. Dopamine affects a persons movement, attention, and learning.

Axon

An Axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron’s cell body transmiting neuroal signals.

The axon is the tail-like part of the neuron where sinformation exits the cell. It helps in the transmit information. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands.

Myelin sheath

Myelin sheath is an insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses, formed from the cell membrane of the Schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system and from oligodendroglia cells. Myelin sheaths three main functions include are protecting the nerve fiber, insulating the nerve fiber and increasing the rate and efficiency of the transmission of conduction of the nerve impulse.

Dendrites

Dendrites are a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body. Dendrites are treelike extensions at the beginning of a neuron that help increase the surface area of the cell body. These tiny protrusions receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma. Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body.

Synapses

The area where two neuron connect allow transmission of information to occur from one to the other. The messages flow across one neuron to the next through this small gap which separate the pair. .

1.
In order for neurons to properly communicate, an electric pulse must occur. It happens as it travels down an axon to the synaptic terminal where the
impulses trigger the vesicles to move which contain the neurotransmitter. It is said that most learning is though to involve the change between neurons and synapse. Learning consists of strengething synapses that are already there or by the creation of new ones. Sometimes, eliminating some helps. By learning new things we must realize that our old thoughts aren’t accurate and replace them with new ones in order to change the thoughts and behaviors we once exhibited. (Bruer & Greenough, 2001;Lichtman, 2001; Merzenich, 2001).

“Historically, theorists and researchers have believed that the physiological basis formost learning and memory lies in changes in the interconnections among neurons— in particular, in forming new synapses, strengthening existing ones, or eliminating counterproductive ones.”(e.g., Merzenich, 2001; M. I. Posner & Rothbart, 2007; Trachtenberg et al., 2002) progress

.
Cortex

cortex Upper part of the brain; site of where
complex, conscious thinking processes takes place. It is the large lumpy area that covers the sides of our brains. “The area of the brain immediately behind the forehead—the prefrontal cortex—seems to be the primary headquarters for working memory and its central executive, although all of the cortex may be active to a greater or lesser extent in interpreting new input in light of previously acquired knowledge” (Byrnes, 2001; Gonsalves & Cohen, 2010; Huey, Krueger, & Grafman, 2006; Nee, Berman, Moore, & Jonides, 2008).

This is the main area that the learning process occurs.
Synaptogenesis

Universal process that occurs in early brain development in Which cause the formation of numerous synapses.
Being able to think more complex and eddicent thoughts, development change in this brain must be the first thing to happen, which is done by synaptegeneis. “neurons begin to form synapses long before a child is born. But shortly afterbirth the rate of synapse formation increases dramatically. Neurons sprout new dendrites in many directions, …life. Much of this early synaptogenesis appears to be driven primarily bygenetic programming rather than by learning experiences. “ (Bruer, 1999; C. A. Nelson,

Thomas, & de Haan, 2006).
Synaptic pruning

Synaptic pruning is the process when old formed synapses wear away due to universal process in the brain development. A developmental process that eliminates “nuisance” synapses that are inconsistent with typical environmentalevents and appropriate responses. Synaptic pruning, then, may be Mother Nature’s way of making the brain more efficient (Bruer & Greenough, 2001; Huttenlocher & Dabholkar, 1997; Spear, 2007). Adults and children happen to form new thoughts and synaose based on expierence and new discovery. They replace one thought with the other they learning through these developments.

Myelination

Myelination is the formation of fatty substance around the axons of the neurons. This is what helps speed up the electrical pulses therefore speeding up the transmission of the messages and information shared between the pair of neurons. As myelin is created over neuron transmissions more

quickly, greatly enhancing the brain’s overall efficiency. Myelination continues throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, especially in the cortex (Lenroot & Giedd, 2007; Merzenich, 2001; Paus et al., 1999).


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