1.Brain drain is basically understood as the country’s loss of highly-skilled human capital together with a simultaneous lack of “brain circulation”, that is, the flow of talent from one country to another country. Pakistan is facing a twofold challenge, on the one hand an alarming increase in the skill level of human capital exiting the country’s economic system, particularly the scientifically- and technologically-skilled personnel, resulting in the erosion of national competitiveness. On the other hand, there is the system’s poor ability to attract skilled human capital from the rest of the world.
A loss of our talent, combined with an inability to attract foreign “brains”, heavily penalizes the country in the context of a globalized world that increasingly competes on the basis of knowledge and innovation. The policies instituted to date by the our govtt, as well as by the private sector, aimed at reversing outward flows or attracting highly-skilled individuals to Pakistan have been inadequate. The main shortcoming of these policies has been that they have taken the form of low-key and often uncoordinated initiatives Aim
2. To find out the causes of Brain drain in pakistan and suggest measures to dec it. Seq
3.This paper will be unfold in fol seq:-
a.Definition and types incl cat of skilled pers of brain drain
b.Factor Causing brain drain.
c.Remedies for brain drain.
Definition and types of brain drain
4.What is Brain Drain.It the phenomenon of abandonment of a country in favor of another by professionals or people with a high level of education, generally following an offer of better pay or living conditions as well as improved conditions for conducting one’s professional activities.
5.Types.Fol are the types of brain drain :-
a.Eco Brain Drain
b.Religious brain drain
c.Educational Brain drain
d.Intellectuals Brain drain
6.Fol are the cat of skilled pers who form part of brain drain:- a.Corporate transferees. These persons operate at an international level through internal labor markets. Their transfers are prompted by various reasons and may last for periods of time of varying length. Frequently, such transfers are motivated by career advancement and training needs. This category also includes specialists in production systems, marketing and research; their transfers meet the organizational needs of the firms for whom they work .b.Technicians and visiting firemen. These are individuals whose movements reflect the specific occupational skills they possess. Their movements can take place within international labor markets or within the ambit of the operations of multinationals.
Transfers may be related to specific development projects, or they may come about unforeseeably or in response to management needs in crisis situations. c.Professionals.Who often work in the healthcare or education sector, and are frequently engaged by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Selection takes place on an individual basis and is for specific periods of time abroad. In some NGOs, deployment abroad may become permanent. d.Project specialists. Their migration is related to specific projects being carried out abroad. Transfers technically speaking go through internal labor systems, although sometimes these persons are recruited on the external labor market for limited contract periods. e.Consultant specialists.
An increasing number of white-collar organizations are resorting to engaging specialists for a wide range of activities. The destinations are global, according to the organizational structure of the client. The consultancy firms themselves are becoming transnational in nature. f. Private career development and training. Many people are seeking opportunities through external labor markets for career advancement and further training, which necessitate stays of varying lengths abroad. This group includes different professions, but also young people in their early career years seeking experiences in foreign settings. This category also includes those who are in later stages of their career and whose transfers may be read in terms of “chasing the dollar”.
g. Priests and missionaries. Religious and “semi-religious” orders who traditionally send their members abroad for periods of varying durations. The groups involved overlap with other types of emigrants, especially in the healthcare and education sectors. h. Entertainers, sportspersons and artists. This is a diverse internationally mobile group of persons whose stays abroad are often for brief periods. Some of them can, however, settle overseas permanently. i. Academics, researchers and other academic staff. There is a substantial exchange of academics and researchers between universities and similar institutions for periods of variable length. Many transfers are for relatively short periods, such as an academic term, whilst others are for longer durations (the archetypal brain drain situation).
j. Students in higher education institutions. A growing number of young people are undertaking studies abroad, at all levels and for periods of varying duration, ranging from several months to a number of years. k. Spouses and children of the abovementioned categories can be reasonably included in all evaluations of the migration processes of highly-skilled individuals, though in strict labor-market terms, their inclusion would be questionable. Brain circulation
This concept describes training and career paths in which students or workers go abroad to specialize and then return to their country of origin, drawing on the experience they have amassed to secure more advantageous employment conditions.
Factor causing brain drain in Pakistan
6.Some of the major causes of brain drain are as fol ;-
c.Lack of institutional Facilities.
e.Lack of Nationalism
g.Lack of Counseling Institutions
PROPOSALS FOR ACTION: GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES
In terms of government authorities, five main areas of action are proposed: investment in research on par with that of other major economies; clear-cut policy choices that promote brain circulation; the adoption of models apt to encourage study and specialization abroad, and a subsequent return to Italy; the establishment of public-private partnerships; and the facilitation of entry visa procedures for foreign researchers and talent. In terms of universities and other public and private research centers, the work to be done is extensive and should form part of an earnest reform of the university system.
There are at least nine main areas of action proposed: an overhaul of competitive exams for academic posts; the establishment of PhD courses in line with modern and competitive criteria; the delocalization abroad of periods of university and postgraduate study; the creation of academic centers of excellence; a shake-up of research funding; the conduct of university courses in English and the internationalization of curricula; the optimization of remuneration packages; mandatory retirement at age 65 in respect of all managerial roles performed by university academics, with a view to facilitating renewal; and the establishment of exchange programs.
A boost in research investment
First and foremost, we note that research cannot be undertaken without investment. Paksitan spends 0.8% of GDP on research and development (2008 figures). This percentage is surprisingly low compared to that for countries such as the United States (2.8%) or the Swiss Confederation (2.9%), but also relative to the European average (1.8%).
The adoption of policy choices aimed at promoting brain circulation Policy choices apt to facilitate the departure and arrival of skilled human capital from around the world are a necessary precondition for Italy to be geared towards social and economic development that is competitive with that of other countries. Such policies should also tackle the social immobility, patronage, parochialism and vested interests that have historically contributed to the brain drain from Italy and, at the same time, hinder the influx of skilled human capital to our country.
The creation of public-private partnerships
Government institutions should encourage partnerships with the private sector and with universities, and strengthen their links with the local labor market. Such collaborative relationships would also instill a more international and global culture in a society that would become more competitive and transparent.
Proposals for action: universities and other research bodies It is essential that our universities and other research centers be made attractive, international and accessible to foreign students and researchers, in order to help even out the balance between incoming and outgoing talent. This obviously entails making the university system more open and meritocratic, giving rise to a need for serious and farsighted reforms.
The creation of centers of excellence
In order to ensure the workability of two-way exchange programs, it is necessary to create centers of excellence capable of attracting and hosting the best international students and researchers, providing them with a standard of quality similar to that in their sending country or which they would be able to find elsewhere in the world.
A shake-up of research funding
We propose that an end be put to indiscriminate funding, which should instead be allocated according to peer-reviewed proposals with calls issued on a regular basis. Adjudication panels should draw on international experts with no ties to the research institutes associated with the proposals. Medium-term and final reports should be required and be a key condition for obtaining further funding.
Remedies For Brain Drain in Pakistan
6.Some of the major remedies of brain drain are as fol ;-
a.Aval of jobs.
b.Provn of Social Justice
c.Improvement in institutional Facilities.
g.Making of Counseling Institutions
h.Role of Media.
i.Revision of Immigration Policies