1. Explain how insulin changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment. The insulin changed the plasma glucose levels by raising dramatically from fasting to the one hour mark, but by hour 3 it droped again to almost the same levels as fasting. The glucagon remained almost the same on throughout the levels except that it lowered a bit 1 hour after the meal.
2. Explain how glucagon changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment.
Glucagon acts on liver cells to promote breakdown of glycogen into glucose and formation of glucose from lactic acid and certain amino acids.
3. Explain what caused the change in plasma ketone concentration over the course of the experiment.
Ketones changed from high during fasting to lower after eating and even after hour three because it first they were needed to generate ATP but droped because they were not needed as much for fuel.
4. Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma insulin concentration observed during the experiment.
the level of blood glucose controls secretion of both glucagon and insulin via negative feedback.
5. Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma glucagon concentration observed during the experiment.
6. The insulin/glucagon ratio changed over the course of the experiment indicating changes in glucose storage and changes in ability to increase blood glucose concentration via glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. State when glucose storage capability was highest and why.
7. State when glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were highest and why.
1 hour post meal because that’s when there was the highest amount of sugar in the blood.
8. Explain how a high blood ketone level helps the body conserve blood glucose.
When the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood rises above normal the ketone bodies, most of which are acids, must buffered.
9. Restate your predictions that were correct and give the data from your experiment that supports them. Restate your predictions that were not correct and correct them, giving the data from your experiment that supports the correction.
1. During exercise, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released from the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine and norepinephrine have the same effect on plasma glucose levels as glucagon. Explain how epinephrine and norepinephrine affect plasma glucose and why this is important during exercise.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine will be released by the adrenal medullae in response to stress. During exercise the brain will release epinephrine and norepinephrine because it has been told that the body needs to adjust to the new demand that must be met. Which means that the heart rate needs to increase in order to support itself and work efficiently. 3. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include high plasma glucose levels and ketoacidosis (blood pH decreases due to increasing levels of ketones). Explain how diabetes causes these symptoms.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus because the chemical balance of the body becomes too acidic.