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Blood Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

I decided to write my paper about the coagulation system, including clot formation, but mainly about Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, also known as DIC, is a pathological activation of blood clotting mechanisms that may happen in response to a variety of diseases, or illnesses. However, DIC, is most commonly observed in severe sepsis and septic shock. DIC is not a specific illness, rather it is a complication or an effect of the progression of other illnesses or diseases. (Porth, 2011). When the body becomes injured, certain proteins in your blood become activated and travel to the injury site to help stop bleeding and control hemostasis. Hemostasis is the normal process of sealing off a blood vessel to prevent…

Relationship Between Lactate Threshold

Abstract Research into the relationship between physiological variables and running performance has been variable. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between 5k running performance and a number of physiological variables in a group of 11 trained club runners (Age 21.451.63yrs, Height 175.092.77cm, Weight 67.865.12kg). The athletes underwent a laboratory treadmill test to determine their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and running velocities at lactate threshold (v-Tlac) and blood lactate concentration of 4mM (v-OBLA). Running performance was determined by a 5k time-trial on an athletics track for which the average time was 1097.09 ± 108.02 secs. The mean velocities for v-Tlac and v-OBLA were 15.18 ± 1.5km/h, 16.76 ± 1.60 km/h and mean VO2max was 59.10 ±…

RHOgam Case

RHOgam refers to Rho immunoglobulin. RHOgam is an injectable blood product used to protect an Rh-positive fetus from antibodies produced by its Rh-negative mother. The injections are given at about 28 weeks in the pregnancy and immediately after delivery. With these injections, Rh-negative women can have safe Rh-positive pregnancies. Rh is short for Rhesus factor. Rhesus factor is a type of antigen present on the surface of red blood cells. If you have this particular antigen, you are Rh positive. If you don’t, you’re Rh negative. The Rh factor is important in determining blood type for transfusions. Normally your immune system protects against potentially harmful substances (antigens). When foreign antigens enter your body, your immune system makes antibodies to help…

The Importance of Occupational Safety Health Administration

What is OSHA, what is its mission and how does it protect you? OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The Mission of OSHA is “to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance ” (OSHA). This agency administered the OSHA Act of 1970 which comprises of standards or rules for workers and employers and penalties for those who do not follow the established guidelines. This Act sets many standards across a multitude of industries; more importantly there are sets of established designed specifically for the medical field. The guidelines cover standard precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE) and handling contaminated waste to name…

All About Blood

1.) What is the significance of lower-than-normal hematocrit? Lower-than-normal hematocrit indicates anemia. People with anemia do not have enough hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Iron, B12, and folic acid deficiencies, some medications, and pregnancy can cause anemia. There are also more serious causes such as problems with the immune system that cause destruction of red blood cells earlier than normal, chronic diseases including kidney disease and cancer, and problems with bone marrow found in leukemia and lymphoma (MedlinePlus:Anemia, 2012). What is the effect of a bacterial infection on the hematocrit? A bacterial infection, which raises white blood cell counts, may affect the hematocrit by lowering it. 2.) Compare the development of lymphocytes with the development…

Heart and Cardiac Muscle

What is the heart? The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. It is about the size of a clenched fist, weighs about 10.5 ounces and is shaped like a cone. The heart is located in the chest cavity just posterior to the breastbone, between the lungs and superior to the diaphragm. The heart is surrounded by a fluid filled sac called the pericardium. Blood is pumped away from the heart through arteries and returns to the heart through veins. The major artery of the body is the aorta and the major veins of the body are the vena cavae. Chambers of the Heart The heart is divided by a partition or…

Lab Report

As part of my module Nip1002 I was required to perform a set of observational skills which included; pulse, blood pressure, respirations, hand washing and urinalysis and then compare them to previous results. In this lab report I am going to discuss blood pressure in detail. Procedure * Explain the procedure to the patient and gain consent * Wash hands thoroughly following the hand wash technique to prevent the transfer of bacteria * Clean equipment e.g. blood pressure cuff and stethoscope using antibacterial wipes * Ensure the patient is comfortable and has been resting for 10 minutes * Remove tight clothing and support the arm at heart level, overestimation or underestimation can occur if it is not at the appropriate…

Blood Case Study

1. A) The primary disorder of this person is Hemolytic Anemia. That is when the bone marrow is unable to produce more red blood cells to make up for the ones being lost. There are more being destroyed faster and the bone marrow can not keep up. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/ha/ha_whatis.html B) The cause of the leukocytosis is that there is an increase in the production of white blood cells and in this case it is the level of lymphocytes that are elevated. The bone marrow is making too many white blood cells. There is an abnormality in the bone marrow concerning the production of white blood cells and too many are released in the blood. http://www.medindia.net/education/familymedicine/Leukocytosis.htm C) The cause of the thrombocytopenia…

Heart Functions

1.What do you notice about the sizes of the four chambers? Annotate the measurements you have recorded onto your drawing. The ventricles are much bigger than the atria and the left ventricle is bigger than the right ventricle. Left atrium wall: 0.4cm Left ventricle wall: 1.4 cm Right atrium wall: 0.2 cm Right ventricle wall: 0.6 cm 2.The left ventricle has a much thinker wall than the right ventricle; explain why this is. The left ventricle has a much thicker wall than the right ventricle because the left ventricle has to pump blood to the whole body while the right ventricle only has to pump blood to the lungs. 3.What is the function of the tendinous cords attached to the…

Abdominal Aortic Aneursyms

Aneurysms were first described by the 16th century anatomist and physician Vesalius, who believed they were simply a widening of the vessel (Collin et al 2009). An abdominal aneurysm (AAA) is a condition in which the abdominal aorta (a large blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdominal, pelvis and the lower limbs) becomes large and ballooning leading to the development of several symptoms. The condition more often occurs in males compared to females. It occurs more frequently in above the age 60. When the aortic aneurysm is larger than size, it is more likely to rupture causing life-threating problems. This is a medical emergency requiring critical care. This complication is present in about 20% of the people affected with…

The Fabulous Journey

Good evening everyone and welcome to our fabulous journey inside the respiratory system. I am Alice and I will be your tour guide this evening on this amazing adventure to the lower right lobe of the lung. The right lung consists of three lobes; they are the right superior lobe, the right middle lobe, and the tight inferior lobe. They are responsible for keeping the lungs properly working (onlineschools, 2012). Let’s see how fabulous journey works out. We are going to be traveling through the body of a healthy female singer. We will be traveling in style through the system of the body. We have the submarine ready with all we will need on our voyage now all we do…

Malaria in Nigeria

Malaria is one of the devastating cases in the world, It has become a major problem because its spreading in 109 countries. Almost 90% of malaria death comes from Africa, around 66% of the people’s lives are in high risk. So in total, less than 15% of the global total malaria deaths occur in Asia and Eastern Europe. (author) Why is malaria dangerous? Malaria in humans is caused by many types of parasites but the most dangerous and the one that causes 90% of deaths around the world from malaria is plasmodium falciparum. This parasite is the most dangerous one because it affects the behavior of the red blood cells, Red blood cells get infected by the parasite and become…

Gangrene

Gangrene is a condition that occurs when body tissue dies. However, in the book Whale Talk, Andy Mott states, “Gangrene …” (is) “… rot. ” (p. 134) Technically he is right. It is caused by a loss of blood supply due to an underlying illness, injury, and/or infection. Gangrene is probably one of the worse types of infections that can result in an amputation. Fingers, toes, and limbs are most often affected, but gangrene can also occur inside the body, damaging organs and muscles. There are different types of gangrene and all require immediate medical attention. Blood plays a very important role in your health. Not only does it transport oxygen and nutrients throughout your body to feed cells, it…

Perpetual Help System

1. What do you think is the function of the nictating membrane, and why ? The nictitating membrane is a protective, semi-transparent third eyelid. It allows vision while giving the eye extra protection. In the case of frogs, the protection is needed when the frog is out of the water. The clear nictitating membrane allows the frog to keep looking for prey – and looking out for herons and other hunters! – while its eyes are protected from dust and from the drying effects of the air. 2. A frog does not chew its food, what do the positions of its teeth suggest about how the frog uses them ? That they are intended for gripping, not for chewing. The…

Independant Study, Delayed Cord Clamping vs Immediate Cord Clamping

Throughout the students practical placements they have witnessed midwives having conflicting views on the practice of delayed cord clamping which then allowed the student to research the topic in depth. After reviewing all the evidence the student will make recommendations for practice. They should discuss the implications of both delayed cord clamping and immediate cord clamping to improve patient safety and reduce harm to both the neonate and the mother. For the student to show their ability to be an independent learner they must undertake a study on a subject of their choice. The student has chosen to discuss whether delayed cord clamping or immediate cord clamping is more beneficial for a positive outcome for neonates and mothers. The student…

The Case of the Man with the Swollen Kidneys

Mr. Newman is a 49 year old male who has hematuria, fever and severe flank pain. He also has bilateral lumbar tenderness, bilateral renal enlargement, liver enlargement, ankle and facial edema, skin pallor, and lung sounds suggest pulmonary edema. His vital signs are as follows: BP 172/100, heart rate 92 beats per minute, and a temperature of 102.2 F. There have been some labs done. His red blood count is 3.1 million cells, white blood count is 22,000 cells, potassium is 5.4 mEq/L, calcium is 6.8 mg/dL, phosphate is 4.3 mEq/L, urea is 37 mg/dL, creatinine 2.0 mg/dL, albumin is 2.9 mg/dL, and pH is 7.29. With labs like these, more testing was done. A chemistry panel which showed protein…

Trends in Hiv Prevalence

ABSTRACT HIV prevalence in the world is becoming increasingly high. As of mid-1998, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unequally around the world. In many cities in sub-Saharan African countries more than a quarter of young and middle-aged adults are infected with HIV, whereas in most developed countries, the number of annual AIDS cases continues to decrease. The status and of HIV epidemics in most other areas of the world remains uncertain because of inadequate data on the prevalence of HIV-risk behaviours. Hence, this paper presentation seeks to examine the trends of HIV prevalence across the world taking all the continents into consideration. INTRODUCTION HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus, and like all viruses of this type, it attacks…

Cardiovascular Disease Information

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in over half of the people in this country. It affects all aspects of the heart function, from the arteries that supply the blood to the valves to the heart muscle itself. Heart and blood vessel disease- cardiovascular disease – includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque build up I the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood lot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke. Some of the symptoms associated with cardiovascular…

Morphology of the Heart

The heart is a muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system. The heart pumps blood throughout the blood vessels by contractions. Cardiac means “related to the heart”, and comes from the Greek. The vertebrate heart is made up of cardiac muscle, it’s an involuntary striated muscle tissue found only in this organ, and connective tissue. The male’s heart weighs 9-11 ounces, and the female’s heart weighs about 11-12 ounces. A person’s blood pressure has major effects on their heart; high blood pressure is a major risk factor for a heart attack. If the heart can’t get enough oxygen, you will get chest pains which is called angina, and when your blood flow is blocked, it will result…

Staying Safe

Introduction First aid is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or is delayed. It also includes well-selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence. The person giving first aid, the first-alder, deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. He knows what not to do as well as what to do; he avoids errors that are frequently made by untrained persons through well-meant but misguided efforts. He knows, too, that his first aid knowledge and skill can mean the difference between life and death, between…

Cause and Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation

Over the last 30 years, there have been many campaigns in order to promote blood donation. The purpose and focus of these advertisements has been to promote unpaid volunteers to donate blood. This blood is direly needed to keep blood banks full in order to service individuals who need blood transfusions around the world. Overall, blood donation advertising has been extremely successful in producing the desired effect. In the past, there was a shortage of younger individuals who were donating blood. Thus, blood donation organizations launched hip and youth focused campaigns in order to encourage these individuals to donate. The campaign focused on television, radio and internet advertising in order to reach youths. Socialblood.org has connected with Facebook to encourage…

Diabetes Case Study

Patients with lower socioeconomic status often times never seek primary care until seen by an Emergency Room doctor. At that moment he or she is told to see a primary physician for a condition known as diabetes. Although some individual think if they ignore the fact that they have been diagnosed with diabetes it will simply go away. This is a common and immediately life-threatening issue seen in hospitals About Clinical Diabetes (McNaughton; Self, 2011). “Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a set of related diseases in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar (specifically, glucose) in the blood. The blood delivers glucose to supply the body with energy to perform daily activities. Today 90% of adult with diabetes are…

Hemophilia Summary

Background -Hemophilia A is an inherited disorder in which one of the proteins needed to form blood clots is missing or reduced. This lacking protein is known as blood clotting factor 8. Without F8, the blood cannot clot properly to stop bleeding and can result in excessive bleeding or disabilities. Hemophilia A -When blood is not able to clot and allow wounds to heal, this is a result of Hemophilia A Symptoms Include: -Prolonged bleeding from cuts -Excessive nose bleeds -Many large bruisings -1 in 5,000 males are affected Blood Coagulation -Blood coagulation is the defensive process that causes blood to clot and helps prevent excessive blood loss when blood vessels are injured. -Coagulation is a complex process that involves…

Laughter Therapy

“Laughter is the best medicine!” We’ve all heard that before, but is it true? Studies show 20-25 minutes of laughter every day is healthy for the body. Laughing also helps with depression, cancer patients, making our hearts healthy. It also strengthens our immune systems, relieves stress, helps us look younger and so much more. Laughing Therapy relates to positive thinking. Most diseases are related to stress, tension depression. When we have tension, we start various problems in our body such as; high blood pressure, heart troubles, lowers our immune systems, etc. Laughing helps relaxes our muscles and helps in relieving stress. Muscular tension is released when you laugh. Your digestion is better. It helps heart rate and helps blood flow….

The path of blood

The path blood take from the right femoral vein to lower lobe of the right lung via the pulmonary artery is as follows; we start in the right femoral vein which is located in the thigh and travel to the right external iliac vein. Blood from the femoral vein emptiness in the inferior vena cava but first must travel through the external iliac. The iliac vein joins with the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava takes deoxygenated blood form the lower limbs of the body to the right atrium (Thibodeau, Patton, 2008.). Following the inferior vena cava we travel in to the right atrium of the heart. The purpose of right atrium of the heart is to receive deoxygenated…

Advanced Electrolyte System

BENEFITS 1.Replenish fluid losses 2.It helps in sustaining mental and physical performance PROMISE “complete sports drinks” REASON TO BELIEVE 1.It has 15 g of Carbohydrates which is the body’s main source of energy. It is also primary fuel source for muscles which are working at a moderate to high intensity and prolonged endurance. 2.It has sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium which replenish the electrolytes commonly lost through sweat. Electrolytes regulate body’s water and blood pH level. UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION To male and female that are active in sports. It is designed to balance the body fluids to give fast hydration and energy. It has Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) and Carbohydrates which is effective and ideal in maintaining performance…

Experience hyperthermia

Marian suffered from a heat stroke causing her body to experience hyperthermia. Marian body went through the process of homeostasis from experiencing hyperthermia. “Homeostasis is a state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.”(Marieb 8) Homeostasis protects the body by allowing it to adapt to the environment. Marian homeostasis tried to cool the body but failed. Though Marian was lucky her daughter found her in time. When a heat stroke occurs the body’s homeostasis shuts down where the temperature can reach high enough to cause brain damage to where you die. Heat strokes can cause damage internally well as externally. Hyperthermia causes a positive feedback mechanism within the body. “A positive feedback mechanism is a feedback that…

Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency is a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood due to a lack of iron. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia in children. You get iron through certain foods, and your body reuses iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency (too little iron) may be caused by; an iron poor diet (this is the most common cause) the body not being able to absorb iron very well. Lilly is a 4-year old Caucasian female she suffers from a disorder called Iron Deficiency anemia disorder. This occurs when there is not enough iron in the body. The reason Lily has Iron Deficiency disorder is because of her diet. Iron is…

A Case on Blood

Doctors determined that Harold is anemic, meaning he is suffering from anemia. Anemia is a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin. If you have anemia, like Harold, your body doesn’t get enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, you may feel tired or weak. You also may have other symptoms, such as shortness of breath, dizziness, or headaches. The primary pieces of evidence from the CBC that point to this diagnosis are the results of the hematocrit and the hemoglobin. Both of these results fall under the reference range for Harold. 4. Harold has a chronic form of…

Shock: Blood and Fluid Resuscitation

Shock is a syndrome characterized by decreased tissue perfusion and impaired cellular metabolism. This results in an imbalance between the supply of and demand for oxygen and nutrients. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients at the cellular level is essential to life. When a cell experiences a state of hypoperfusion, the demand for oxygen and nutrients exceeds the supply at the microcirculatory level. Classification of Shock The four main categories of shock are * cardiogenic,: * hypovolemic, * absolute hypovolemia * relative hypovolemia * distributive: * neurogenic shock * anaphylactic shock * septic shock * obstructive multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) target organs * cardiovascular dysfunction * lung dysfunction * gastrointestinal dysfunction * liver dysfunction * CNS dysfunction * Renal…