1. Define science – Science is the development of concepts about the natural world , often by using the scientific method 2. Define multicellular organism – are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform various functions. 3. Identify the 3 domains of living things. Which domains include one-celled organisms with no nucleus? a) Organized, Homeostatic & Reproduce. b) Bacteria & Archaea 4. Modern taxonomists (scientists who classify organisms) no longer use the classification of the kingdom of Protists. List the three other kingdoms of Eukarya. Plants, Fungi & Animals 5. List and give a brief explanation of the steps of the scientific method. The steps of a scientific method make up an orderly way of gaining information. The first step is observation where the scientist recognizes that something has happened and gathers the data to research. Then formulate a hypothesis trying to come up with a solution, after more observation of the hypothesis & then finally draws a conclusion.
6. Define “control group.” Define “test group.” Give an example of a control group and an experimental group being used in the same experiment. Control group is a group in a scientific experiment where the factor being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard for comparison against another group where the factor is applied. Test Group is a group exposed to the experimental variable; compared to the control group. An example of an experiment would be the placebo control condition.
7. Two scientific studies have different probability values associated with their results. Study A has p = 0.03 whereas Study B has a p = 0.1. Which study shows the greater confidence level that the results were not due to chance? Study A Explain your answer. Because the lower the p value, the less likely the results are due to chance. 8. Why might scientific information presented to the public by laypersons such as reporters be in error? Because the studies in scientific journals may be technical and difficult for layperson to understand. The reporter may misunderstand what is printed 9. Which types of URL’s on the internet are considered more reliable when trying to find a website with scientific information? URL’s that end in .edu, .gov, and .org. Which types of URL’s should you carefully question and verify? URL’s that end in .com or .net. Why? Because quite a bit of scientific info on the Inet is intended to entice people.
10. What is anecdotal data? Testimonies by individuals rather than results from a controlled, clinical study which isn’t reliable. Why is it considered unreliable supporting scientific information? Because it’s subjective. 11. Why is correlation data (data showing that two events occurred at the same time) not necessarily meaningful? Because one factor might not be the cause of the other. 12. Briefly define the following: Matter is anything that takes up space. Element is any substance that can’t be broken down into substances with different properties. Atom is the smallest part of an element that displays the properties of the element. 13. What are the subatomic particles and what is the electrical charge of each? Protons (positively charged), Neutrons (electrically neutral), both found in the Nucleus of the atom & Electrons (negatively charged). Where in the atom is each of these particles found? In the orbital (Electrons) 14. Which two types of bonds join atoms into molecules? A molecule may be composed of two or more atoms of the same element, as in oxygen gas. Or, it could be oxygen & hydrogen.
15. An ion is an atom or molecule that has a (full) positive or negative charge because its number of electrons and protons is not equal. Give an example of an ion. Sodium & chloride 16. In a covalent bond _____________ are shared between two atoms. Electrons 17. A hydrogen bond always involves an atom of what element? Water 18. What keeps water from undergoing sudden changes in temperature? Hydrogen 19. How does hydrogen bonding play a role in making ice float? Water expands when it freezes because in ice the water molecules form a lattice in which the hydrogen bonds are farther apart than in liquid water. 20. If a solution has a pH of 9, would it be considered acidic, basic or neutral (pick one). Basic 21. Which has a higher hydrogen ion concentration, a solution with pH 3 or a solution with pH 8? pH3 22. What is the function of a buffer? To prevent pH changes. Name a bodily fluid that is buffered. Blood
23. List a) the 4 categories of organic macromolecules unique to cells. Then list b) the primary function(s) for each general type of macromolecule you listed in (a). Then list c) the subunits (monomers) for each macromolecule you listed in (a). Carbohydrates –function is energy storage in all organisms. All carbohydrates are built up from monosaccharides or simple sugars Lipids – a diverse group of molecules that play diverse roles for cells and organisms. Lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Lipids and proteins are the major structural components of cell membranes & provide long term energy. Proteins – provide structural support, metabolism (enzymes), immune defense, body regulation& resort energy source after carbohydrates and lipids with amino acids as subunits Nucleic Acids – (DNA & RNA). Nucleic acids are made up of chains of monomers called nucleotides (phosphate, pentose sugar & nitrogen containing base) The genes specify the sequence of the amino acids in proteins. The RNA gene is an intermediary that conveys DNA’s instructions. They carry & store information.
24. What are the two major differences between a dehydration reaction and a hydrolysis reaction? Dehydration is when molecules come together and forms water & the hydrolysis reaction breaks down the molecules that formed the water. 25. Lipids are a diverse group of macromolecules that do not dissolve in water. What does hydrophobic mean? Water-fearing. What does hydrophilic mean? Water-loving 26. Do the heads of a phospholipid bilayer face outside or inside of a cell membrane? Face outward Why? Because the head is polar & has to face toward the watery solutions which causes a sandwich arrangement. 27. Proteins need a specific ____________ to function correctly. Shape 28. What type of bond joins two strands of DNA? Hydrogen
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