1. Binomial nomenclature: Linnaeus’s system of naming organisms, giving a scientific two-word name to each species- the first part being the genus, and the second the species
2. Class: taxonomic group that contains one or more related orders
3. Classification: grouping of organisms or objects based on a set of criteria that helps organize, communicate, and retain information
4. Division: taxonomic term used instead of phylum to group related classes of plants and bacteria
5. Domain: taxonomic group of one or more kingdoms
6. Family: taxonomic group of similar, related genera that is smaller than a genus and larger than an order
7. Genus: taxonomic group of closely related species with a common ancestor
8. Kingdom: taxonomic group of closely related phyla or divisions
9. Order: taxonomic group that contains related families
10. Phylum: taxonomic group of related classes
11. Taxon: named group of organisms ex: phylum, species
12. Taxonomy: branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species based on their natural relationships. CH 17 SEC 2
13. Character: inherited morphological or biochemical feature that
14. Cladistics: taxonomic method that models evolutionary relationships based on shared derived characters and phylogenetic trees
15. Cladogram: branched diagrams that represents the hypothesized phylogeny or evolution of a species or group; uses bioinformatics, morphological studies, and information from DNA studies
16. Molecular clock: model that uses comparisons of DNA sequences to estimate phylogeny and rate of evolutionary change
17. Phylogney: evolutionary history of a species CH 17 SEC 3
18. Archaea: the species classified in Domain Archaea
19. Fungus: unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that is stationary, absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment, and has cell walls that contain chitin
20. Protist: unicellular, multicellular, or colonial eukaryote whose cell walls may contain cellulose; can be plant-like, animal-like, or fungus-like
17.1 ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS:
1. It is easier to communicate and retain information about organisms when they are categorized into groups.
2. In the name given to an organism according to binomial nomenclature, the first part is the genus name, and the second part is the specific epithet, or specific name, that identifies the species.
3. In modern classification systems, people could classify organisms not only on morphological and behavioral characteristics, but also included evolutionary relationships.
4. The giant panda is of the Animalia Kingdom, Chordata Phylum, Mammalia Class, Carnivora Order, Ursidae Family, Ailuropoda Genus and Melanoleuca Species.
5. Since the phyla includes multiple classes, there would be more biodiversity in the phylum than in the class.
6. Taxonomy involves classifying species, but systematics involves discovering new species and relationships. They incorporate information from taxonomy in their studies.