1. Summarize the mechanisms that participate in blood sugar control in the body. You may wish to create a concept map to illustrate the process. (5marks) Blood sugar is the basic source of fuel used by the body to power all of the chemical reactions in one’s cells. Any imbalance may lead to a disorder. There is an absolute relationship between food intake and blood sugar maintenance. In its absence, the cells may not function nor perform any chemical reactions. The relationship tells us that when one lacks glucose one lacks the energy to function for life.
All cells definitely use glucose to power reactions. When chemical reactions taking place in the cells are incomplete, one may feel tiredness or may not be able to concentrate or even make decisions. Sugar is rapidly released into the system when refined carbohydrates containing starch and sugar are eaten and digested rapidly. Protein or fats food groups may cause glucose to enter the blood stream at a slow and steady pace because it is being digested slowly. Fig. 1 Blood sugar regulation (Blood 2007). Glucose enters the cells for chemical reactions to take place with the help of insulin.
Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones responsible for the control of the concentration of glucose in the blood. Pancreas contains the active receptors responsible for monitoring of glucose levels in the blood. Pancreas receptors are the ones responsible for the release of these glucagon and more insulin hormones. It functions to release less glucagon and more insulin when glucose levels show an increase. However when glucose levels show a decrease, it releases less insulin and more glucagon. The diagram illustrates the feedback control for blood and sugar levels action in the body system.
The following reactions then occur in the liver as a result from the pancreas receptors initialization stage: An increase of glucose levels released insulin which converts glucose into glycogen while a decrease of glucose levels released glucagon and converts glycogen into glucose. Excess production of glucose is stored at the liver for release at a later date. The lack of it may be compensated by the new supply of glucose brought about by the conversion of glycogen into glucose. 2. Why must insulin be given by injection rather than by mouth? (2 marks)
Insulin functions to lower the level of blood sugar. It acts as a gateway for opening channels in the cell membranes so glucose may be able to flow through as it leaves the blood stream and enter the cells. When the body consumes available supply for fuel, the glucose level automatically drops and is restored only by the supply of stored glucose at the liver. But when the cells fail to respond promptly on the rise of blood sugar levels producing more insulin in the process, the pancreas dumps everything right back into the blood stream thus making the unused hormones ineffective (Mosier 2007).
This may lead to an overworked pancreas and results to reduction of insulin production. In cases where the body’s immune system mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas, the condition warrants daily insulin shots to regulate the body’s blood sugar level because of its failure to produce insulin hormones. Insulin injection administration is being taken as the primary alternative being injected just under the skin because it goes to the bloodstream immediately making the process shorter rather than oral administration which also affects the dosage bioavailability.
The aim of the injection is to deliver the appropriate hormone dosage at the right time in a shorter process of reaching the blood stream to produce its effect. 3. Women who do not want to get pregnant sometimes take the pill. Birth control pills contain progesterone and other female sex hormones which make a woman’s body act as if it were already pregnant, suppressing further ovulation (among other things). Create a concept map that illustrates how the pill works. Feel free to use the template files. How it is possible to take this hormone treatment orally, (in contrast to insulin in #2, which must be taken by injection)? (5 marks)
The pill contains estrogen and progesterone hormones which function as a regular birth control pill taken once a day and always at the same specific hour of the day. The pill acts to prevent pregnancy by keeping the woman’s egg from leaving the ovaries during ovulation. The hormones in the pill control the ovaries and the uterus. Furthermore it initiates change to the uterus lining making it difficult for the egg to attach to the uterus (Birth 1995). The absence of an egg cell and not meeting the sperm cell do not respond to nature’s fertilization process in the uterus and do not serve to impregnate any woman in this context.
First is the definition of the need that is predicting the angle of emergency which seems to serve life and survival at its best. The long process of oral administration and bioavailability can still aptly respond to the prevention of the onset of pregnancy. The medication was designed to be taken that way because of its nature which is not a matter of emergency. 4. How will each of the following affect the quantity and composition of urine formed in humans: (a) hypersecretion of ADH, (b) hyposecretion of insulin, (c) drinking large amounts of water?
(6 marks) When pancreas dumps everything back into the blood stream, it causes high blood glucose spilling into the urine. The presence of glucose in the urine where it does not belong alters the balance of the kidneys and results to its inability to resorb water from the urine. This results to the glucose giving the urine its sweet flavor attracting ants. A defect in ADH production or a defect in the kidney’s response to ADH creates a change in body weight, urine output, and urine composition.
Insufficient secretion of ADH causes excessive volume of urine which also induces excessive thirst and water consumption of the affected person. The water merely passes through the kidney which is considered a danger because of the person’s inability to control the disorder. Insulin then plays a major part in the control of blood glucose levels and maintaining the proper bodily functions at the first stage pancreatic level disorder. The disorder causes frequent urination where a large volume of urine is diluted that is mostly water.
To make up for the lost, a person may need to drink large amounts of liquids. The abnormal excretion may cause dehydration if water intake is not sufficient. 5. Which endocrine glands are controlled by the secretion of other endocrine glands? What is the general name for these types of hormones? (3 marks) The pituitary gland which is no bigger than a pea is considered as the most important part of the endocrine system. It is located at the base of the brain beneath the hypothalamus. This master gland creates hormones that control several other endocrine glands.
Among the hormones it produced are growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, corticotropin, and endorphins. The pituitary also secretes hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. And the most dramatic function is the release of antidiuretic hormone which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output including oxytocin hormone. Basing from the pituitary glands control on the mentioned hormones, it shows direct control over the mammary glands, thyroid glands, adrenalin glands, and the reproductive glands named male gonads or testes and female ovaries.
6. Compare the mechanisms by which the body regulates the concentration of water in the blood and a steady temperature is maintained in your home. Be sure to use the proper terminology. The answer would lend itself well to the incorporation of a concept map. (5 marks) Normal body temperature is measured at 370C. Anything below or higher than normal will result to a change in heat generation and lead to a disorder in the body temperature regulation. The mechanisms of conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation greatly affect bodily functions.
The human body has a number of mechanisms to help it cope with the cold or heat weather. It is the same with the pancreas function of regulating the insulin production which affects the excretion of urine in the body system. It is the idea of being in or out of the danger zone level that affects the processes of the body system. Figure 2. Body heat transfer (Koehler 1996) References Blood sugar regulation. (2007). Retrieved May 26, 2007 from the database of biology-online. org Website: http://www. biology-online. org/4/3_blood_sugar. htm Koehler, K (1996). Body temperature regulation.
Retrieved May 26, 2007 Website: http://www. rwc. uc. edu/koehler/biophys/8d. html Mosier, R. (2007). Diabetes, your blood glucose: The fuel for your engine. USAPFRI an article from the book of Executive wellness: A guide for senior leaders. Retrieved May 26, 2007 from the database of Myhooah4health. com Website: http://www. hooah4health. com/body/nutrition/diabetesBG. htm Birth control: Birth control pills (1995). Retrieved May 26, 2007 from the database of The Nemours Foundation Website: http://www. kidshealth. org/teen/sexual_health/contraception/contraception_birth. html