Harbin: Chapter 14
1.How did Rehoboam manage to lose most of his kingdom? Rehoboam managed to lose most of his kingdom because he refused to cut taxes and threatened to raise them. P284 2.Why is Asa viewed as a good king but given a mixed review? Asa was viewed as a good king but given mixed reviews because the lacked spiritual sensitivity, he lack complete trust in God to assist with the attack on Baasha in the Northern Kingdom.
P286-287 3.How did Jehoshaphat show piety on the one hand but political naiveté on the other? Jehosphat showed piety by fortifying the country and went through the land removing pagan shrines that had either not been removed by Asa or had crept back in. He sent teachers throughout the land teaching the law and organized the countries militarily.
On the other hand he made poor political alliances with Ahab, Ahaziah, and Jorm all with negative results. Jehoshaphat was a strong man spiritually but not always discerning regarding the people around him. P287-288 4.What is most memorable about Athaliah? Athaliah is most memorable for after the death of her son Ahaziah, she proceeded to kill off the rest of the male in the royal family so that she could rule. She missed one: Joash. P289 5.How did Joash bring hope to the Southern Kingdom? What did he do that caused him to be assassinated?
Joash brought hope to the Southern Kingdom with the help of the priest to purifiy the temple, eradicating the worshp of Baal from the Southern Kingdom, repaired the temple, restoring the worship and sacrificial system. By turning his heart away from God, he ordered Zechariah to be stoned on the temple grounds, which led to his assassination. P290 6.In what way did Uzziah demonstrate spiritual foolishness? What were the consequences? Uzziah demonstrated spiritual foolishness by entering the temple to burn incense something only priets were to do.
God then intervened and struch him with leprosy, his pride and misplaced zeal in worshinping God, he was rendered unfit enen to enter the temple. P292 The death of Uzziah is an important date in the biblical record, for it was during that year that Isaiah was commissioned as prophet. 740 BCE – P292-293 7.What is most memorable about Ahaz? Ahaz is memorable because he turned away from YHWH, he served the pagan gods, including Baal, even performed child sacrifices.
He closed the temple Solomon had built for worship of YHWH, preferring his new altar and the gods of Damascus. P293-294 8.Compare and contrast Hezekiah with his father, Ahaz, and with David. Hezekiah was as food as his father was evel. He cleansed and reopened the temple, rejected the foreign gods and showed great trust in YHWH and looked to Isaiah for advice, he promoted spiritual revival. P295-298. 9.What was the role of Isaiah in the Southern Kingdom?
The role of Isaiah in the Southern Kingdom was both a prophet and historian. P298 10.What key prophecies did the prophets of this period give regarding the Messiah? The key prophecies that the prophets of this period gave regarding the Messiah were: a.The first is the anticipation of the birth of the Messiah – virgin birth b.“Servant Songs” – gives a shapshot of his death, how the Messiah’s bearing the sins of His people and His resurrection. c.That Jesus would later read in the synagogue in Nazereth – Isaiah 61:1-2. P299-300 11.What is most memorable about Manasseh? Manasseh’s most memorable moments outside of his acts of apostasy.
Both Kings and Chronicles report how he reversed Hezekiah’s reforms, began false worship, set up idols, and even performed child sacrifice, as a result of his acts, the Southern Kingdom would go into exile. In his Babylonian prison Manasseh came to realize what he had done and repented. After prayer, he was returned to Jerusalem, where for his last few years he reversed some of the worst of what he had initiated. P302-303 12.In what ways was Josiah the last hope for the Southern Kingdom?
Josiah was the last hope for the Southern Kingdom in these ways; religious reforms, initiated a restoration of the temple, encouraged the priest in the performace of their duties and told them to put the ark back in the temple where it belonged, he obeyed God’s commandments. P304-306 13.Trace the decline and fall of the Southern Kingdom. With the death of Josiah is son Jehoahaz was placed on the throne, only to be captured by Pharaoh Neco, Neco placed Jehoiakim (son of Josiah) but did not listen to Jeremiah’s warning that the Sothern Kingdom was going to end up like the Northen.
Egypt lost to the Babylonians, Jehoiakim didn’t listen to warning and turned to Egypt for help which did not go well. P307-308 14.Describe the different ways by which Jeremiah tried to convey his message to the people. The different ways by which Jeremiah tried to convey his message to the people were: a.Burying a linen sash near the Euphrates River to signify the Exile b.
Watching a potter remake a flawed item, illustrating how God would remake thje nation c.Breaking a large pot before the leadership, demonstrating how God would destroy the Southern Kingdom d.Redeeming a piece of land, showing confidence tht God would preserve the people even through exile e.Remaining single because of the anticipated hard times
f.Wearing a yoke to symbolize upcoming bondage. P310 15.Why was Lamentations written? Lamentations written as a lament focusing on the city of Jerusalem and it’s destruction, Jeremiah admitted throughout the book that the reason for the destruction was the sin of the people. P313
1.What are some reasons that the Exile was not as severe as it might have been? Some of the reasons that the Exile was not as severe as it might have been are: a.The Assyrian and Babylonian perspective, the design of the exile process was only partially punishment. P316 b.The Exile was not so dire seems to be that at least some of the people listened to the prophets. P317 c.Seems to be coupled with the people’s wherewithal to follow God’s instructions and pray. God blessed the people even while they were in exile. P317 2.Summarize both the incidents and the visions recorded in the book of Daniel.
Here is a summary of some incidents and visions recorded in the book of Daniel: a.Nebuchadnezzar had a dream that he wanted interpreted and his advisors could not do so. All the advisor’s where given a death sentence including Daniel. Daniel asked for and received a stay of execution in order to try to get an interpretation. Daniel and his friends prayed to God and He answered. After praising God, Daniel went to the king and reported the results. He informed him that the vision was a statue meade of four mentals. These represented four successive world kingdom, represented by a stone cut out without hands, which would fill the earth.
Finaly, Daniel told Nebuchadnezzer that God was giving him this message as a broad outline of the future. P318-319 b.We see his friends thrown into the fiery furnace because they failed to worship Nebuchadnezzars’ gold statue, but they were rescued by God. P319 c.Daniel was thrown into the lion’s den because he dared to pray to the God in heaven rather that to Darius, but he also was delivered by God. P319 d.A very important incident took place at the end of the Babylonian Empire, when Belshazzar was the king.
The king had a big pary while the Persian armies were surrounding the city. When he was drunk, Belshazzar decided to drink a toast to his gods with cups taken from the temple in Jerusalem. A hand appeared and wrote on the wall “Mene, Mene, Tekel, Parsin”. The king called for Daniel and asked him to translate, Daniel did translate the words, telling the king that it was all over for him and for Babylon. P320 e.Daniel relates several visions he received that supplement Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the statue – first wave of exiles returned to Jerusalem about the time of his last vision. P320
3.What is apocalyptic literature, and how is it different from prophetic literature? a.Apocalypitc literature serves to show God’s sovereignty over the future, seems to be less concerned with a response and more focused on what God is going to do – regardless, tends to be more visually oriented than prophetic, and is very rich in the use of symbols. b.Prophetic writing serve to sho God’s sovereign control over history, oriented toward the audience receiving the message – and there is an expected response from the hearer and has some symbolic representation. P320
4.What makes the book of Ezekiel distinctive? The book of Ezekiel is distinctive because it was written in Babylon, it seem to have been accepted by Israelits who devoutly believed God, and it was inccorportated into the canon. And he records his famous vision of the valley of bones – points to a future restoration of the nation. Followed bya prophetic declaration of a future period of restoration when God would place His Holy Spirit within the people.
A major vision was of a restored temple. Ezekiel was a prophet who pronounced judgements as God’s representative. P325-326 5.What is the significance of Esther? The significance of Ester was her role in the defense of the Jewish people from an attempt to exterminate them. P326
Before reading chs. 16–17 in Harbin, read Hindson, ch. 12 and take detailed
Harbin: Chapter 16
1.What was the function of Haggai? Haggai was a prophet with a specific agenda-get the temple rebuilt. P336 2.How was Zechariah’s ministry different from that of Haggai, his contemporary? Zechariah’s ministry differs from that of Haggai, his contemporary because Zechariah’s message focused more on future issues: while Haggi presented his message in the style of the traditional prophet, Zechariah’s message was more apocalyptic. P337 3.What was Ezra’s role in the return? Ezra’s role in the return was to enforce God’s laws.
Ezra and his associates were to bring order to a region that was somewhat chaotic. One way they did this was foreign wives would be divorced and sent home to prevent their “detestable practices” from affecting the community. P340 4.How did Nehemiah help the struggling community in Jerusalem? Nehemiah helped the struggling community in Jerusalem by persuading Artaxerxes to give him control over Jerusalem to rebuild the walls. He was able to unite the community and built the walls in 52 days. P341-342 5.What is the significance of Malachi?
The significance of Malachi was to bring the word of the Lord to Israel. a.He assured the people that God would be sending a messenger to prepare the way. That future event would be a time of testing when the false and unfaithful would be burned up but the true and faithful would be proven, healed, and victorious. b.A final promise that before that “day” occurred, God would send Elijah. With this understanding, the Jewish people began a conversation that would last several hundred years. The focus of their discussion was on what they should do to keep the Law. P344-345
1.Why did the OT canon end with Malachi? The OT canon end with Malachi because after Malachi, no more prophets arose wose works measured up. The Jesish community came to the conclusion that God had nothing more to say to them. P350 2.What is the Apocrypha, and how was it viewed by the Jews at the time of Jesus? The Apocrypha are a collection of books that are found between the OT and NT in some Bibles and means “Hidden” or “secret” and are not to be read to the congregation.
The early church fasthers knew that the Apocrypha had not been accepted by the Jews and the apostles, and thus they never included these books in the canon. P351 3.What is the Mishnah? How is it different from the Talmud? Why are they important? Mishnah is a multivolume work written by Jewish leaders in a debate regarding how to keep the law. Mishnah (meaning “repetition” that is, “study or Teaching by repeated recitation”). In some respect, the Mishnah is a commentary on the Law, but is also a record of the debate and the conclusions the Jewish rabbis reached.
P352 After the destruction of the temple in 70 CE, many of the rituals and laws were put into abeyance. Without a temple what was one to do? While the Mishnah debate continued, the Jewish community soon turned to a new discussion. This discussion was eventually recorded in the Gemarah (meaning “completion, the learning of the oral teaching, tradition”, which is basically a commentrary on the Mishnah, explaining how it can be carried out away from the land and without a temple. The Mishnah and the Gemarah togerther constitute the Talmud (“teaching, learning”). P353
4.What are Pseudepigrapha? The Pseudegrapha are works produced by Jewish writers, some of these were written prior to the NT perios, while others originated in the last part of the first century and beyond. The Greek word pseudepigraphon means “written under a false name” anthe the plural Pseudepigrapha was first applied to works attributed to someone other than the actual writer, usually a noted prophet. P354 5.How did the Sadducees develop? The Sadducess developed from a “traditionalist” mind set “we must return to our roots”.
They wanted to maintain a Hebrew culture, using the Hebrew language, following a rigid interpretation of the Jewish law. The Sadducess developed from a Helleniztion movement sometime after the Maccabean revolt, mainly made up of the Jerusalem aristocracy and the temple priesthood. Their primary concern seems to have been to avoid confrontation with the secular “powers that be”, often viewed by the people as selling out. P355-357 6.How did the Pharisees develop? Pharisees are split off group from the Hasidim (“pious ones”) in opposition to the Sadducess.
The Pharisees were largely middle or lower class, both businessmen (predominantly) and priests (or Levites). Their chief concern was following the Law and, more specifically, how to apply the Law to various day-to-day issues. P355-358 7.Who were the Essenes, and why are they important? The Essences, a much more conservative group than the Pharisees. Esssenes split off from the Hasideans (Pharisees) 20 years prior to the Maccabean revolt. They followed a much stricter lifestyle, one we would call ascetic. Some times called themselves “Sons of Zadok”.
P358 8.Who were the scribes, and what role did they play in Judean society? The scribes was a professional title, scribes trace their office back to the time of Ezra “the scribe”. Their primary functions were to copy the Law, to read it, and then to interpret it to the people. P359 9.Trace the rise and demise of Alexander the Great. See highlights on pages 360-362
10.What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death? After Alexander’s death, his empire was divided between four key leaders: Lysimachus held Thrace and Asia Minor; Cassander had control of Macedonia (including Breece); Ptolemy controlled Egypt (also Palestine and varous other regions); and Seleucus ruled the Persian heartlands. P362 11.Who were the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, and why are they important? The Ptolemies are named after Ptolemy I, one of Alexander’s generals who controlled Egypt, Cyprus and som footholds in southern Asia Minor, as well as Judea and southern Syria.
One of his most significant acts was to establish a major library in Alexandria. Alexandria also became a major settlement for Hebrews who did not go back to Jedea. P362. The Seleucids are named after Seleucus I who had been a general under Alexander, he held the Persian hearlands and regained most of Asia Minor. He attempted a strong program of Hellenization to unite the kingdom. Acritical aspect of this program was an effort to force th worship of his favorite god, Zeus, on his subjects. During the early part of his reign, he contented himself with playing Jewish factions against one another.
There was a constant power struggle between these two parties, ending in the Maccabean revolt, which eventually resulted in independence for Judea. P364-365 12.Who were the Maccabees, and what did they do for Judea? The Maccabees were a family that led a revolt against the Syrian invaders who attempted to force all Jews to a false god. Their successful revolt led to the independence of Judea.
They cleansed the temple and rededicated the temple. Three key accomplishments: they achieved independence from Syria; thmerged the priesthood and the throne; they entered into an alliance with Rome. By 142 BCE, Judea had received full independence. P366-367 13.How did Herod, an Edomite, become king of Judea? Herod, an Edomite, became king of Judea because of a civil war between two brothers. Due to the conflict Rome placed Antipater two sons as military governors: Phasael over Judea and Herod over Galilee.
After his father and brothers death, he was placed in charge of the region. In 40 BCE, Herold fled to Rome when the Parthians invaded Galilee. There he persuaded the Roman senate to appoint him king of Jedea. P368-369 14.How did Rome make Judea part of the Roman Empire? Rome made Judea part of the Roman Empire because of its troubles, in 6 CE it ceased being a client kingdom and became a Roman provice.
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