Manufacturing better, more durable and less-costly products has always been an important part of the industrial process for the designers to think about and the developing technology nowadays helps the corporations to design better technics, better methods and these help the corporations to reduce the costs, increase the products by decreasing the time that is necessary to manufacture those products. People working in industries try to find more efficient ways of manufacturing the products and thus, they use work measurement methods to plan the work of the workforce, to decide how many workers it would need to complete the tasks, to determine the time that is needed to complete the task, to calculate the general cost of the product and finally to calculate the general efficiency and the productivity of the workers.
Work measurement is the process of establishing the time that a given task would take when performed by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance. There are various ways in which work may be measured and a variety of technics have been established. The basic procedure, irrespective of the particular measurement technic being used, consists of three main stages; an analysis phase in which the job is divided into convenient, discrete components, commonly known as elements; a measurement phase in which the specific measurement technic is used to establish the time required to complete each element of work and a synthesis phase in which the various elemental times are added, together with appropriate allowances to construct the standard time for the complete job.
In today`s modern and global world, work measurement technics are much more important compared to the past, as the industries are rapidly growing and there are more effective methods founded every day. Today`s engineers benefit from the past, as the pioneers of the modern manufacturing processes, Frank Gilbreth and Frederick Taylor have already found some effective methods and have increased the outputs of the industrial employees with their time and motion studies. As an example, Frank Gilbreth, in the early 18th Century, found out that a bricklaying operation can be done 3 times faster than normal with applying different methods and standardizing the motions of the worker.
The concept of work measurement is relevant to breaking elements into parts, and breaking elements into motions. The tools haven`t changed, basic technics from the past haven`t changed but the use of computers speeded up the task and in the video, we saw that some of the facilities and the managers and the engineers working in these companies explain the importance and the benefits of the work measurement methods. In the video, there were 4 big companies and the methods they were using were different from each other, but all of them were aiming to increase the efficiency and the productivity.
In Cooper Instruments, the most important work measurement method is time study and time study is frequently used in this industry. Firstly they break the operations into smaller parts and then engineers make several observations on these elements and note the measured times in each observation and after the observations, they download the data into a computer, as it is easier to make the calculations on the computer, and analyze the data to find the average time for each element, which is also called the normal time.
After taking the normal time, the engineers consider all personal times, delays and add these to normal time to find the standard time of the operations. After all of these analyzes, they synthesize a new improved method and present it to the manager and it was observed that the new improved method achieved a reduction in cost by decreasing the cycle time. So, it is understood that the work measurement methods helped this industry to decrease the cost by increasing the efficiency of the workers and decreasing the idle times.
In McGregor Golf Company, motion analysis with Pre-Determined Time Study is the mostly used technic. They analyze motions, take note on the methods and explain the task to the operator. They also collect data and then they use computerized PTS system to analyze the data. McGregor Golf Company also uses a computer to compute the data and to find a better method by comparing the data taken by the engineers with the predetermined standard time for standard motions. The computer tries to change the sequence of the operations, change the materials that are used, etc… to reduce the process time and to increase the productivity.
Cramerton Automotive Company uses the work sampling method in work measurement for the time determination of a certain task, as there is a long cycle in the automotive industry. In Cramerton Automotive, communication with employee is also important, as the communication between the enginners and the employees would help the workers to make their job better and thus increase their productivity. Engineers in Cramerton Automotive examine each operation by making several observations and then they find the time necessary for each operation. Then they organize data to give the manager and they arrange a meeting with manager to analyze data and try to find solutions to improve the methods. The improvements on the methods helped the employees to work easier which results as an increase in their efficiency.
Kohler Corporation, is nowadays in transition as they were using stopwatch time study but after a while they understood that it was useless, so they decided to change the system and started to use computerized PTS system. They apply the technics on the software programs and then with the concensus of the technician, operator and the supervisor, they try to find a improved method. Videotapes are also used for the supporting data and the operators efficiency is tried to be increased.
In conclusion, it is obvious by these specific examples that the Work Measurement is an important concept in today’s modern world and as the industries and the corporations are trying to find a solution to increase their capacity and reduce the costs, they should be considering Work Measurement methods as WM methods can reduce many costs, as it can help the manufacturers to increase the efficiency and the productivity of the employees and thus reduce the labour hours and labour costs.In addition to these,work measurement methods helps the products to be manufactured in a shorter time, with better quality, which results as an increased demand for the consumers. In the near future, the facilities, workshops, corporations and companies will definitely understand the benefits of work measurement methods, and they will consider this issue more seriously as it is a vital part of manufacturing processes.