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Behaviorism Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Classical Conditioning

Different authors have different perspectives on classical conditioning, yet they agree on one aspect which is common, that it is a natural sequence of events; an unconscious, uncontrolled, and unlearned relationship. Comer (2004) defines classical conditioning as a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and produce the same response. Conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US. A stimulus is a factor that causes a response in an organism. The US is usually a biologically significant stimulus such as food or pain that elicits a response from the start; this is called the…

Donne as a Metaphysical Poet

Introduction During the past forty years there have been two major theories of language learning by children. But there are two major schools of thought known as, ‘Behaviorists’ and ‘Mentalists’. One school is of the view that language learning is entirely the product of experience and that our environment affects all of us. Others have suggested that everybody has an innate language learning mechanism. Let us discovery with the help of these two schools of thought that how do children acquire their mother tongue. How do they grow up linguistically and learn to handle the stylistics varieties of their mother tongue? How much of the linguistics system they are born with and how much do they discover from their exposure…

John B. Watson

John Broadus Watson, an American psychologist, was born in Travelers Rest, South Carolina on January 9, 1878. Watson began his post-secondary education at Furman University where he got his master’s degree at age 21, then to the University of Chicago where he studied philosophy. In 1901 Watson got married to Mary Ickes and had two children followed by acquiring his Ph.D. in psychology in 1903. In 1908, he began teaching psychology at John Hopkins University proceeded by his famous lecture at Colombia University titled “Psychology as behaviorist views it”. Watson played an intricate role in the development of psychology by studying psychology with a behaviorist approach. The concept behind this is that an individual’s behavior is the proper why to…

Skinner and his Contributions to Psychology

Burrhus Fredric Skinner is an American psychologist and behaviorist. He has made many contributions to psychology and most are still used today. They are used to treat some phobias and addictive behaviors in humans. He also thought of radical behaviorism which is his own philosophy of science. Skinner believes that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He believes that behaviors are depending on what happens after the response this is what Skinner calls Operant conditioning. Skinner invented the Operant conditioning chamber which is known as the Skinner box. The Skinner box was invented to study animals such as rats. This box contained a lever and food or water…

The Psychology to Sam’s Rebellion

The Psychology 2 In the movie Life as a House, George’s son, Sam goes through new changes in behavior. When the movie begun Sam was a rebellious young teen with negative feelings toward his father. Throughout the plot of the movie Sam goes through experiences with his father as they spend time together over the summer, which brings them closer together and allows them to have a better relationship. Sam’s acting out and unwanted actions were results of his parents divorce and not having a healthy relationship with his father. In Psychology, the basic concept of Nature vs. Nurture is said to Influence Development. Nature, according to Laura A. King (2010), includes “the individual’s biological inheritance, especially his or her…

Theories of Learning

Fill in the following boxes by defining Elemental and Holistic Models of Development. Then you will describe 2 theories, including theorist (s) from each model of development. Finally you will list the important points derived from each model learning theory. Save this document and type directly onto the document and into the boxes. The boxes will expand to accommodate what you write. Submit as an attachment to the appropriate drop box. ModelDefinition of each Model Learning TheoryTheory and Theorist 1Theory and Theorist 2Important Points Derived (Be sure to number these theories and double space between them for easy reading). Elemental Model Learning TheoryRepresents the universe as a machine composed of discrete pieces operating in a spatio-temporal field: reactive and adaptive…

Behavioural Approach

The behavioural approach suggests that all behaviour is learnt. This includes abnormal behaviours. Behaviours can be learned through classical conditioning, operant conditioning or modelling. Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning, where learning results from the association of stimuli with reflex responses. Classical conditioning can be used to explain the development of many abnormal behaviours, including phobias, anxiety disorders and taste aversions. An example of how classical conditioning might result in a phobia is the case of Little Albert. In an experiment carried out by Watson and Rayner, a 11 month old boy called ‘little Albert’ was taught to fear a white rat through associating it with a loud noise, a symbol behind his head. Each time he played with the rat…

Grade Retention for Struggling Students

The use of ABA principles and techniques to treat people with Autism live happy and productive lives has grown quickly in recent years. According to information provided by the Autism Organization, ABA is used all over the world and is recognized as a safe and effective treatment. http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/index.php There have been many studies done in a variety of settings all examining effects of ABA methods on social behaviors. Donald Baer completed the first published study on ABA in 1968 and there was another study by O. Ivar Lovaas done in 1987. These studies both took a look at using behavior modification interventions on Autistic children. The idea was to use early intervention to teach alternate, socially appropriate behaviors. In the…

Individual Perspective Paper

Today modern psychology consists of many ideas of science and psychology of the past. Several psychologists have come together to share their perspectives and related ideas for the advancement of psychology. One major influence in early psychology is behaviorism and John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman are considered contributors to behaviorisms. These are distinguished psychologists who have different perspectives on conditioning and behaviorism and how their different practices can be used to treat patients dealing with different issues. This paper will elaborate on their perspectives and contributions and show comparison and contrast in psychology today. Over the years American psychology prepared the way for behaviorism to become the dominant force in the discipline. This is a result…

Psychological Perspectives

Behaviourist approach-we can understand any type of behaviour perspective by looking at what the person has learnt, including personality, confidence, optimism or pessimism. Classical conditioning and Pavlov’s dogs. Pavlov was working with dogs to investigate their digestive system Pavlov attached a tube to the dogs mouth was the sliver comes from. This was then attached to a monitor in whom the monitor would monitor how much sliver was used during salivation. Salivation was a automatic response that is unconditioned (not learnt). Food leads to this almost automatically (unconditioned stimulus). Pavlov decided he wanted to find out how much the dog salivated when associated with different noises before giving him food. Pavlov put up a wooden wall so the dog could…

Maps in Your Mind

Reasons for Tolman to carry out the study were to demonstrate that complex internal cognitive activity could be studied in rats, not only in humans, and that these mental processes could be studied without the necessity of observing them directly. The theoretical propositions which this research is based on were two 2 modifications to the prevailing view that Tolman proposed. One was that the true nature and complexity of learning could not be fully understood without an examination of the internal mental processes that accompany the observable stimuli and responses. The second was that even though internal cognitive processes could not be directly observed, they could be objectively and scientifically inferred from observable behavior. The method Tolman used were two…

Psychology Notes

1) Four big ideas in psychology: a. Critical thinking is smart thinking b. Behavior is a bio psychosocial event c. We operate with a two-track mind (Dual processing) d. Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges 2) Why do psychology? e. The limits of intuition and common sense i. Enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. ii. May aid queries, but are not free of error. iii. Hindsight Bias: the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. 1. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. iv. Overconfidence: thinking you know more than what you actually know. f. The scientific attitude v. Composed of curiosity, skepticism, and humility. vi. Curiosity: passion for exploration. vii….

Classical Conditioning

Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. Classical Conditioning One of the best-known aspects of behavioral learning theory is classical conditioning. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Classical Conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. It’s important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov’s classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound…

Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning

There are four primary conditioning theories of behaviorism. These four theories are Pavlov’s (1849-1936) classical conditioning, Thorndike’s (1874-1949) connectionism (also known as law of effect), Guthrie’s (1886-1959) contiguous conditioning, and Skinner’s (1904-1990) operant conditioning. According to the text (Shunk 2012) Classical conditioning was discovered around the beginning of the 20th century by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov was studying digestive process in dogs when he discovered that the dogs salivated before they received their food. Pavlov utilized a tuning fork and meat powder. He hit the tuning fork and followed the sound with the meat powder. In the beginning, the dog salivated only to the meat powder, but after this was repeated, salivated at the sound of the tuning fork….

Learning Experiences

A fear of something may begin as an involuntary response that is then reinforced through experience. Fears that arise out of experience may be based an isolated event, or a recurring event that reinforces the behavior. This experience which causes the fear can be analyzed through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive-social learning. For example, an individual with a fear of dogs may have had a natural fear without any negative experience which then may be reinforced through actual negative situations. There may not be an explanation of why this fear develops just as a person may have distaste for certain foods, types of music, or specific hobbies, however circumstances may reinforce the fear that commenced without a definitive cause….

Extinction of a Conditioned Stimulus

Method: In this experiment, an untrained rat was utilized in order to display the Movement Ratio. 1 stage was selected with ten (10) trials. Each trial had a five (5) minute interval between trials to allow the rat to recover from the medium intensity shock. A medium intensity tone was selected as the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) selected to precede the Unconditioned Stimulus (US), a medium intensity shock. Stage 2 was selected with thirty (30) trials. Each had a five (5) minute interval between trials to allow the rat to recover from the medium intensity shock. A medium intensity tone was selected as the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) to precede the new Unconditioned Stimulus (US), no stimulus. Hypothesis: In the first set…

Different Explanations of Attachments

The learning theories was put forward by a group of behaviourists. It states that we are blank sheets and that we come into the world not knowing anything. It also says that we learn all types of behaviours, including how to form attachments. Behaviour is learned either through classical or operant conditioning. We learn to form attachment through food. Classical conditioning is learning through association between something in the environment (stimulus) and physical reactions (response). In classical conditioning it proclaims that we learn passively and that the response is normally a reflex because it is automatic. Ivan Pavlov was the first person to describe this type of learning. He used his observation of salivating dogs. However, we can apply this…

Learning Theories Based on Behavioral Perspectives

Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment (Cherry,2011). Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behaviour and that taking internal mental states into consideration is useless in explaining behaviour. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist discovered the classical conditioning in the 1920s. Classical conditioning focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses. In his laboratory, Pavlov was in a dead end by his experiments to determine how long it took a dog to secrete digestive juices after it had been fed, but the intervals of time kept changing. At first, the dogs salivated in the expected manner while they were being fed….

The 3 stages of memory

Sensory Memory is the earliest stage of memory. Information from our surroundings is stored for a short period of time for auditory information. Short-Term Memory is information that we are aware of or information that we think about. Most of the information that is stored in our short-term memory for a longer period of time than the Sensory Memory. Long-Term Memory has information that is largely outside of our awareness and can be called into our working memory to be used when needed. Some information can easily be recalled while other information cannot. Knowing how our memory works can help us learn better by writing down our thoughts so that we don’t forget them. For instance, during my down time…

Special Education Strategy Notebook

Self monitoring is a strategy that is often used in classrooms with children who have trouble staying on task and focusing. It is a method that involves a student taking responsibility of themselves academically and behaviorally and recording when they find themselves not on task. In essence, a sheet of paper is given to a child and a noise is made at certain intervals during the class day. This noise could be something that only the specific child hears (such as in an ear piece) or it could be something that is heard by the entire class. Either way, the student who is participating in self monitoring simply puts a tally mark in a column for “on task” or “off…

Spontaneous Recovery and Extinction

Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by extinction, most of which have implications for the nature of spontaneous recovery. However, despite the centrality of the notion of spontaneous recovery to the understanding of extinction, the empirical literature on its determinants is relatively sparse and quite mixed. Its very ubiquity suggests that spontaneous recovery has multiple sources. Previous SectionNext Section Experimental extinction is one of the fundamental observations of Pavlovian conditioning. Just as the arranging…

Letter to Parents

Dear parents, I am Hayley Anderson and I am so pleased to be working with your children! I am 19 years of age and I have been working with young children for about 2 months now and I love every minute of it. I closely align my teaching philosophy with Behaviorism and Social learning theory, by B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson. Learning about all of the different theories I think I best fit along with B.F Skinner and John B. Watson. They had argued that development involves a series of learned behaviors based on an individual’s positive and negative interaction with his or her environment. (Marotz Allen, 2012) I don’t believe in giving into crying children because they will…

Citing Someone’s Work

Skinner (1953) argued that the internal needs and drives of individuals can be ignored because people learn to exhibit certain behaviors based on what happens to them as a result of their behavior. This school of thought has been termed the behaviorist, or radical behaviorist, school. It is argued that the internal needs and drives of individuals can be ignored because people learn to exhibit certain behaviors based on what happens to them as a result of their behavior. This school of thought has been termed the behaviorist, or radical behaviorist, school (Skinner, 1953). ___________________________________________________ Reference Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan,. If paraphrasing cannot be done Example 1 (Short quotation) It is argued that “the…

Learning Experience Paper

From the moment we enter into this world from the womb, humans are bombarded with stimuli and other conditioning. This stimulus plays a significant role in developing who we are, how we perceive elements before us and as important, how we react to those stimuli or events. The course that we take on this journey varies greatly from person to person. The various theories and methods discussed in the proceeding paper will evaluate the potential results from these various stimuli and conditioning, where they derive from and how they impact our learning experience. Throughout the world, there are few learning experiences that rival the association of sharks and the ocean and the subsequent fear that is elicited by people as…

Reflection on the History & Systems of Psychology

Pre-modern, modern and postmodern frames of reference have all helped shape important, contemporary psychological theories and issues. In this paper I will attempt, in a reflective manner, to walk through and revisit the areas we covered in course, the end aim being to gain a measure of insight into where the field of psychology stands today, particularly with regard to oppressive forms of ethnocentric monoculturalism. In terms of pre-modern perspectives, in the course we first discussed historical issues concerning the mind-body problem. I stated the nature of the relationship between body and mind and whether they are one and the same or two distinct substances, which is the center of the debate between monists and dualist. Descartes, the most well…

Two Psychological Approaches To Health And Social Care

Evaluate two psychological approaches to health and social care service provision Both psychological and Behaviourist approaches have difference but however similarities two. Both psychodynamic and behavioural approaches are quite different in terms of supporting whether personality is largely inborn or learnt from others. The psychodynamic approach argues experiences in childhood influences on the development of adult personality without their consciousness. The founder of psychodynamic approach who is Freud (1969) suggests the psychodynamic approach consists of three parts the preconscious, the conscious and the unconscious. The psychodynamic provider’s important framework for judging one’s personality and behaviour. The basic part of the psychodynamic approach is that much of our behaviour is driven by unconscious forces. It is important when working within health…

Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Approach

Designed for students diagnosed with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) there are a numerous amount of intervention strategies and methods that can be used to implement and help students build their self-management skills. These intervention strategies are used with the intention of students ultimately learning how to control their behaviors in and out of school. Consequently, self-sufficient intervention approaches are a supported and efficient method of delivering pertinent and significant supports to students with EBD. Advocates of cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) substantiate the communal correlation amid views and behaviors as a central credence of their method. Students engross in self-management methods when utilizing CBIs. Strategies included in CBIs are self-instruction, self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, self-control, and self-evaluation (Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, & Shriner,…

Compare and Contrast Key Perspectives in Psychology

Psychology literally means the study of the mind, translated from Ancient Greek as psyche, meaning “mind” or “soul” and logia, meaning “study”. The most accurate description of psychology is that it is the science of mind and behaviour (Collin et al, 2011). Psychology evolved from philosophy and can be dated back to the time of Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle (325 BCE). Studying the nature of subjects such as the memory, thoughts and the consciousness, did not make psychology a standalone science, instead it was viewed as a form of philosophical speculations. Psychology became a separate, scientific discipline in the late 19th century. The world’s first experimental laboratory of psychology was founded in 1879 by Wundt. As…

Linguistics and Language

?Write about the 2 theories of 1st language acquisition and choose which most tenableand provide examples and relevant literature one you find Michelle In this essay, I will explain as well as compare two theories of first language acquisition, behaviorism and innatism. I will explore the differences between them in such categories as the role of the learner, the role of the environment and as well as their strengths and weaknesses. I will then state and explain which one I find more tenable with examples of relevant literature. Role of the Learner Behaviorism, credited to B. F. Skinner in the 1950s, states that the learner knows nothing to start with, he is an empty slate [o1] to be taught. The…

Chrysalis Module

Behaviourists explain maladaptive behaviour in terms of the learning principles that sustain and maintain it. Discuss this statement and show how a behaviourists approach to therapy is in stark contrast to psychoanalytic one. The term ‘therapy’ literary means, “curing, healing” and is defined as a treatment intended to relieve or heal a disorder. Historically, there has been considerable development in the range and types of therapy that can be used to help a client overcome their problems in a modern world. Some of these theories are very different whilst others share some similarities. Edward Thorndike proposed the ‘Law of Effect’ whereby behavioural responses which were closely followed by pleasant consequences, would ensure that the same behaviour would be highly likely…