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Ban of Plastic Bags in Pasay City: an Assessment Essay

Introduction

Since the purpose of the study is the problem concerning plastic banning, the researchers focused on the haphazard posed by the issue. Plastic bags are one of the plastic products produced in greater numbers, and one of the products most commonly dispersed in the environment. Unlike any other waste products, plastics have a slow rate of decomposition and accounts for various mishaps of flooding e.i.

Plastic bags have been introduced in 1970’s (Williamson, 2003) and gained an increasing popularity amongst consumers and retailers. They are available in huge numbers and varieties across the world. It is estimated that around 500 billion plastic bags are used every year worldwide (Spokas, 2007; Geographical, 2005). This widespread utilization is attributed to their cheapness and convenience to use. The vast majority of these bags are discarded as wastes usually after a single use. It is also believed that after their entry into environment, plastic. At present time, reports state that about 6,000 tons is either hauled to dump sites, dumped illegally on private land, in rivers, creek, Manila Bay or openly burned.

Only 720 tons (About 10.7%) of the 6,700 tons is recycled or composed. Given this average, 2.4 million tons of garbage will be generated every year. This is equivalent to over 230 million cubic meters of waste, an amount that equates to a knee-deep layer of waste over the entire metropolis (over 630 square meters). Collection of this waste will require a line of garbage trucks going three times around the earth, and over halfway to the moon. The statistic shows a dramatic 75.55% of the total volumes of trash collected are plastics, according to Global Alliance for incinerator Alterative (GAIA), Greenpeace, Mother Earth Foundation and Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA).

This fact showed the current issue concerning the prohibition of plastic(s). Wherein the estimated total solid waste generated in Metro Manila daily is 6,700 tons (based on 2003 population estimates)

Consequently, the Philippine News Agency reported that the municipality of Pasay City implemented its ban of plastic bags starting in September, year 2012. The city government passed City Ordinance No. 4647, series of 2011 last September. Under the ordinance, all stores in the City shall provide or make available to customers only recyclable paper carry-out bags, reusable bags, and compostable plastics bags for carrying out goods. In an interview, Pasay City Mayor Tony G. Calixto encouraged all store owners and operators to faithfully comply with this ordinance. Still, the decree does not prohibit or inhibit customers from using bags of any type that they bring to the store or from carrying goods that are not placed in a bag. Also, receipt of a customer must charge the customer a reasonable amount for each recyclable paper carry out bag and reusable bag; provided, that no rebate or reimbursement to a customer is allowed of any portion of the amount charged required thereof.

Violators of the regulation will be apprehended and will be given warning for the first offense; 1000 pesos fine will be meted out for the second offense; 3000 pesos fine for the third offense: and closure or cancellation of the Mayors/Business Permit is mandated for the final violation. The local chief executive added that the ordinance`s implementation is timely, given the massive flooding that recently hit Metro Manila and nearby provinces due to the South west monsoon. The Pasay city Government announced that it would give the owners and operators of various stores and establishment in the city ample time to prepare for the eventual implementation of the Ban on the use of plastic bags. – (pasay.gov.ph)

Statement of the Problem

This research case study generally deals with the banning of plastic bags in the vicinity of Pasay City. It focuses on the dilemma concerning the prohibition of using plastic(s). In order to find the sought information, the following research questions are to be answered: 1. How do the respondents profile be depicted in terms of:

2.1 Years of residency

2.2 Occupation
2.3 Civil Status
2.4 Membership/Affiliation to any community/Societal organization 2.
What is the extent of awareness of selected respondents in Pasay City to the ordinance in terms of the following:

3.5 Public Announcement

3.6 Media
3.7 Online sources
3. What is the extent of implementation of City Ordinance No. 4647 in terms of:
4.8 Commercial Use
4.9 Residential Use
4.10 Industrial Use
4. What are the effects of these factors in the overall condition of:
5.11 Drainages
5.12 Roads
5.13 Shoreline
5.14 Health of the residents
5. Is the ordinance effective?

Hypothesis

Opinions of the respondents do not differ significantly as regard to the factors that affects the progress of the City. The effects of these factors in the overall condition of our biome are negligible.

Significance of the Study

This study was conducted with the intention to provide information and expectations to the reason(s) why City Ordinance No. 4647 has been implemented. Moreover it explains the importance of the subject as enumerated below: Residents of Pasay City. Will experience a cleaner and fresher air, since the ban will prohibit the establishment of factories manufacturing plastics. Drainage Systems. Less flooding will be experience in Pasay City. Environment. With the ban, the natural ecological balance is maintained. Health. Fewer cases of Dengue are recorded prior to having a cleaner environment.

Future Researchers. This study may provide new insights in question of new knowledge that will benefit the future researchers. As much, this study can also be open for further development and improvement

Conceptual Framework

To understand deeply why this study is needed, a conceptual framework was made to show how related the variables are to each other. The study was focused on the implementation of the Ordinance Regulating the Use of Non-compostable Plastic Carry-out bags and Promoting the Use of recyclable paper Carry-out Bags and Reusable Bags at Malibay, Pasay City. The outline applies to all the selected residents of Pasay City, next is the independent variable which is the location of the subject , the intervening variable here are the less implementation and the full implementation in which it can strengthen or weaken the dependent and independent variable depending on the result. The next variables are the outcome of the implementation of plastic ban which is the dependent variable, the next variable is the extent of the Ordinance in which we will know if it will turn out positive or negative effect to the residents.

Residents
1. Clogged drainages
2 .Polluted and contaminated bodies of water; shorelines, bays, e,i
3. Abrupt and higher rate of dengue-related cases
4. Filthy environment within Pasay City

1. Less cases of clogged drainages
2. Unpolluted and uncontaminated bodies of water; shorelines, bays, e.i
3. Fewer incidence of dengue cases
4. Cleaner environment within Pasay City
Malibay, Pasay City
Implementation of Plastic Ban in Pasay City (City Ordinance No. 4647): An Assessment

Negative Effects of the Plastic Ban
Positive Effects of the Plastic Ban
Full Implementation
1. Non-use of plastic bags
2. Actual applications.

Less Implementation:
1. Using of other non-recyclable materials: Styrofoam, plastic bottles, etc. 2. Incomplete application.

Figure 1.1

As shown on the previous figure (Figure 1.1), the researchers would like to know if the residents who experienced full implementation of the decree would be progressive or would be productive in the community/industry and what will happen to those areas who experience less implementation. The independent variable here is the residents. As a result, the researchers find out that to obtain the effectiveness of the ordinance residents need to have a complete participation, cooperation, and awareness on what is written in the said Ordinance.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This research study is limited on finding the factors that cause the implementation of plastic ban. An affected area includes barangays within the parameter of Pasay City. The respondents are composed of selected residents of Pasay City. The source of data was based only in the written survey questionnaire answered by the respondents developed for this purpose, books and studies that related to the topic. The study was conducted from August to October of 2012.

Definition of Terms

To help the readers understand fully about the study, the following terms are defined conceptually as used herein:

Biodegradable. A material capable of decaying through the action of living organisms. Drainage. The mode in which the waters of a country pass off by its streams and rivers. Flood. An overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. Implementation. Is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something. Recycling. Is the processing of used materials into new products to save resources and energy, and the collection, storage and transportation of those materials from the initial user. Reusable. Anything that can be used again, especially after salvaging or special treatment or processing

CHAPTER 2
RELATED LITERATURE

Related Legal Basis

The unrelenting and neglectful use of plastic bags is a worldwide phenomenon. Data released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2003 shows that somewhere between 500 billion and a trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year. These bags end up as litter as it makes its way to landfills, drainages and bodies of water, taking decades to decompose and damaging marine life when dumped in the sea. According to the World Wildlife Fund Report in 2005, nearly 200 different species of sea life including whales, dolphins, seals, and turtles die due to ingestion and choking from plastic bags. As proposed by Senator Loren Legarda, Total Plastic Bag Ban Act of 2011 seeks to implement a total plastic ban throughout the country.

The use of plastic bags in all establishments is to be prohibited, with corresponding penalties for its violation, with the objective of curbing pollution and helping the country manage its ecological assets more judiciously. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) had also backed two Senate bills that seek to regulate the use of plastic grocery bags and push for the use of environment-friendly alternatives. Trade Undersecretary Zenaida Maglaya and Environment executive director Emelita Aguinaldo lauded Senator Manuel Villar’s Senate Bill 1103 and senator and Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago`s 1543.

Wherein, SB 1103 seeks to promote sound waste management by requiring all department stores, malls, and commercial establishments to utilize reusable environment-friendly shopping bags and provide them free of charge to customers and patrons. SB 1543, on the other hand, seeks to regulate the use of plastic grocery bags. According to House Bill 4840 also known as the Plastic Bag Regulation Act of 2011, requires operators of commercial establishments to provide biodegradable plastic bags to consumers and to establish an in-store recovery program that will give customers opportunity to return used plastic bags to establishments where the plastic bags originated.

Related Studies

The purpose of the release of the ban on free plastic bags is to improve the awareness of the public on environmental protection, eliminate white pollution, and build up the resources-saving and eco-friendly society gradually (Wang, 2008). Plastic bags consumption is very high in the USA. “Every year, Americans throw away some100 billion plastic bags after they’ve been used to transport a prescription home from the drugstore or a quart of milk from the grocery store. It’s equivalent to dumping nearly 12 million barrels of oil (Cernansky, 2010).” The reason people use plastic bags because Plastic bags are inexpensive, sturdy and convenient, so people tend to use it. For instance, Californians use19 billion plastic bags each year, and state spends $25 million to bury these bags proper way (Lagos, 2010).

When people buy something from a store the sales representative drops all the items in plastic bags. People use plastic bags not only to carry their items from grocery stores but also in preserving foods, as zip lock bags, toy bags, electronic items wrapper, sandwich wrapper, trash bags etc. The numbers of plastic bags consumers in the world are from 500 billion to one trillion each year, according to US environmental protection agency (Roach, 2003). People never thought about any alternatives of plastic bag after it was introduced quarter century ago. People are not aware of the environment pollution due to plastic bags. No knowledge about long-term effect of plastic bags keeps its consumption rate high (McKellar, 2010). Plastic bag usage can be environmentally very damaging. The bags take hundreds of years to degrade and fill up landfill sites. Plastic litter can also lead to clogged drains, which result in sanitation, flooding and sewage problems.

In addition, plastic bags can harm animals through ingestion and the incineration of plastic bags pollutes the air and releases toxic substances. Plastic bags are also responsible for using up oil, a scarce natural resource (Gupta, 2011). On the other hand, McKellar (2010) stated that “plastic bags are not only harmful to the environment, but also affect the economy to a certain extent. Our country has spent a lot of money to dispose plastic bags into landfills and ocean every year. In the meantime, many marine animals are being killed every year by ingesting plastic bags”, to support this Gor (2011) in his study, about 100,000 animals such as dolphins, turtles, whales, and penguins are killed every year due to plastic bags. Many animals ingest plastic bags mistaking them for food and therefore die. And worse the injected plastic bags remain intact and even after the death, and decomposition of the animal. Moreover the worst environmental effects are that they are non-biodegradable.

The decomposition of plastic bags takes around 1000 years. Even after processing various types of products made up of ethylene and styrene fibres, they can’t recycle anyhow (Gor, 2011). According to Gupta(2011), the interventions had a maximum impact on the non-working-age population in the treatment shops. The highest proportion of individuals getting their own bags was amongst those aged less than 20 and more than 60. This suggests that the younger generation and senior citizens might be either more environmentally conscious or more receptive to messages about the environment. When the impact of occupations was assessed, it was found that people who were non-earners-student, housewives and the retired – appeared to be most affected by the study interventions. This complements the findings relating to age. In the case of the income category, it was again the non-earning category that showed then maximum influence from the interventions and switched most readily to using their own bags(Gupta, 2011).

Related Literature

There are different opinions or fact of full implementation of the plastic ban in Pasay City. For some, do agree in the prohibiting of plastics would lessen the devastation of several drainages, roads, shorelines, etc. But others would say that there won’t be any differences when it comes to how the people would comply with such ban. “A total ban on plastic bags won’t solve the problem. It will also kill an industry behind 600,000 jobs” (Lamentillo, 2012). Lack of clear guideline on the ban on the use of plastic bags is creating a lot of confusion among consumers and small vendors, Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) revealed.

Worse, even local enforcers who are supposed to monitor and implement the strict implementation of the ban on plastic bags are even more confused because of their different interpretations of the ordinance. In imposing the ban, some LGU’s recommended the use of more environment-friendly alternative packaging materials such as recyclable bags made of textile materials, or paper. Consumers, for instance, complain that market vendors use newspaper to wrap dried fish, which is not hygienic as the packaging sticks to the dried tinapa.  In one city covered by the study, a barangay official penalized all stores using plastic bags, including those selling wet goods like food and fruits (Mayuga, 2012).

Under RA 9003, the local government is responsible for collecting non-recyclable materials and special wastes, while barangay units are given the task and responsibility of collecting and segregating the biodegradable, compostable, and reusable wastes. Of Metro Manila’s 17 cities and municipalities, 11 contracts out garbage collection is to the private sector and 6 collect garbage themselves as part of their local government functions (“The Garbage Book,” 2004). As mentioned, a law abides the proper waste management and disposal of any particular cities waste.

Justification of the study

Citing from the “The Garbage Book by the Asian development bank”, it mentioned that the estimated total solid waste generated in Metro Manila daily is 6,700 tons based on the 2003 population. This is equivalent to about 2,061 dump trucks. Most probably this explains why several cities had implemented such laws governing the use of plastic. Individuals must make conscious efforts to change our daily routine and practices to produce a positive impact on our environment. Companies must change their economic mindset, wasteful production processes and packaging methods – from the use of seemingly cost-effective plastic bags into investing in long-term reusable and recyclable bags which are more sustainable in the long run.

Also it has been stated that the lack of clear guideline on the ban on the use of plastic bags is creating a lot of confusion among consumers and small vendors, so as to speak the is timely for the government to mandate and put into order the law against non-recyclable and reusable plastic(s). In addition, the damage caused by storms Ondoy and Peping as well as the devastating Habagat highlighted the need for a more comprehensive solution to address Metro Manila`s solid waste management.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, research locale, sample and sampling techniques, the subjects, research instrument, validation of instrument, data gathering procedures, and data processing.

Research Design

The researchers applied the descriptive-status research design because the study focuses the solution of problem regarding the implementation of plastic ban in Pasay City. The main goal is to seek real facts and answering questions about what is being studied.

Research Locale

The research locale was conducted within the vicinity of Pasay City where the respondents abides the plastic ban. They were also to discuss the extent in the awareness of the study on the selected residents in Pasay City.

The Subjects

The subject of the study was composed of selected residents of Pasay City. The researchers used the profile of the respondents including the occupation, civil status and years of residency in obtaining valid data.

Sample and Sampling Technique

The sample size is consists of 50 selected residence in Pasay City. The breakdowns of the samples are as follows: 15 teenagers, 20 adults, 15 seniors who had experienced the plastic ban in Pasay City. The researchers used purposive sampling wherein the selection of the respondents has chosen according to the purpose of the study. This portion obtained the samples that will serve as the representatives of the population. Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. The purpose of sampling is to reduce the cost and the amount of work that it would convey a survey the entire target population. A respondent refers to the group of response related to the issue.

Research Instrument

The researchers used written survey questionnaires constructed and developed by the researchers for the purpose of the study. Each item in the questionnaire, except part 1, is rated according to five levels. The contents of the different parts of the questionnaire were the following: Part 1 of the questionnaires seeks the profile of the selected residents as through the years of residency, occupation, civil status and their Membership/Affiliation to community/Societal Organization.

Part 2 seeks to determine the extent of the awareness in the City Ordinance undergone by the respondents. Ratings are the following: 5-very much informed, 4-very informed, 3-informed, 2-uninformed, and 1-very uninformed. Part 3 seeks to determine the extent of implementing the City Ordinance. Ratings are the following: 5-very much implemented, 4-very implemented, 3-implement, 2-not implemented, and 1-uncertain. Part 4 seeks to determine the effects of these factors in the overall condition in Pasay City: 5-very much affected and devastated, 4-very affected and devasted, 3-affected and devastated, 2-not affected and devastated, and 1-uncertain.

Validation of Instrument

The instrument used by the researchers is legalized by the adviser of the study, Mr. Victor M. Cajala. The adviser is positioned as the lecture professor of the researchers in the subject English 213. The process of every part of the questionnaire presented the assurance that the researchers had conformed to the requirements of the questionnaire. Moreover, the contents of the questionnaire were consulted to the adviser to guarantee that the factors affecting the internal and technical aspects of the same had gone through under the adviser’s recommendations for corrections and authorization. After the last validation, the adviser affixed his signature in the last copy of the questionnaire indicating his conformity and approval.

Data Gathering Procedure

This part involves the questionnaire as the method of gathering the essential information from the subjects of the study. The researchers used structured/closed- ended questionnaire where it provides relevant possible answers from which the respondent is asked to select the most appropriate answers. The researchers requested the list of names of the respondents from the selected residence of which it became the basis of outsourcing the respondents. After few days of tracing the whereabouts of the respondents, the researchers conducted the survey from October 8-13 2012. From the data gathered, the researchers tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted the data.

Data Processing

The data procedure method is presented according to statistical tools in the study. The statistical formulas are as follow: Frequency. This is the fact or condition of occurring frequently. This is done by assessing important characteristics of a large mass of data by grouping the data into different classes (variable) and then determining the number of observations that fall in each of the classes (variable). Such an arrangement is called “frequency distribution.”

Percentage. This is getting a part of a whole express in hundredths. The percentage of each class (variable) can be obtained by dividing the class frequency by the total frequency multiplied by 100. Such partition is called “percentage distribution.”


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