Unemployment means lack of work for those persons who are willing to work. There are two categories of unemployed persons-uneducated persons and educated persons. Unemployment among the educated people is increasing. Besides, unemployment, there is under employment also. Under employment means insufficient employment. For example, a farmer is under employed because he does not have work for the whole year. Unemployment is one of the major problems of the Indian economy. We know India is an underdeveloped economy and therefore the nature of unemployment here differs from the one that prevails in a developed economy.
In India there is chronic under-employment or disguised unemployment in the rural sector and unemployment among the educated classes in the urban areas. The main cause of unemployment among the educated lot is the slow rate growth of the economy in relation to increase in the number of educated persons. Several factors are responsible for the problem of unemployment. Our defective system of education which lays too much emphasis on literary training is perhaps the main cause of unemployment. Our government’s faculty planning is also responsible of this problem to a great extent. It fails to create suitable job opportunities for all. Population explosion is a big reason to bring this problem into existence. Population of our country is increasing at fast rate but job opportunities are not increasing accordingly. Engineering and Medical profession have a great attraction for many. But even those professions do not present a very bright picture. First of all it is very difficult to get admission in a Medical or an Engineering College. The education in professional colleges is so expensive that only the rich can afford it. Thus young men and women are facing very tough time. Sometimes it has been seen that they choose a career for which they possess neither the capability nor the attitude. This is the root cause of many young men’s failure in life.
It is therefore necessary to provide young men and women with educational as well as vocational guidance. This will help them choose a profession in accordance with their capability and aptitude. Our government has taken several important measures to solve this growing problem. With a view to increase employment government has made sincere efforts to adopt and encourage labour intensive investment and production programmes. In this connection attention was paid on agriculture, agro-based industries, and cottage industries. Since 1976 a weekly Journal-“Employment News” is being published both in English and Hindi. Education is also being planned in such a way that educated youths should be free from employment problem. Vocational education with the needs and requirements of the country is being arranged. A new education policy, 1986 has been launched. With the primary objective of generating additional employment, especially in backward regions and weaker sections, a number of employment programmes have been started by the Govt, of India.
These are IROP, The Desert Development Programme, tne National Rural Employment Programme, The Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme, the National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment increase in employment has been one of the major objectives in all Five-year Plans of India. Technical and Vocational education is being given in schools. Family planning is encouraged among the young men and women to control population. Different technical and professional colleges are being established in every state. This is a good sign that government is trying its best to uproot this problem.