1. List and explain the meaning of the twelve standards of policing proposed by Robert Peel. Explain why each of these standards is still important today. (respond with a minimum of 200 words) The twelve standards of policing proposed by Robert Peel are:
1) the police must be stable, efficient, and organized along military lines (2) the police must be under governmental control (3) the absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of police (4) the distribution of crime news is essential (5) the deployment of police strength both by time and area is essential (6) no quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action (7) good appearance commands respect (8) the securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency (9) public security demands that every police officer be given a number (10) police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people (11) policemen should be hired on a probationary basis, and (12) police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength (Bohm & Haley).
Having an organized police force and well trained police force is essential for the public and their safety. You want to make sure that all of the policemen are not only physically capable of doing their job, but also have the basic knowledge of the field and the laws and what to do in certain situations that they might be put in. Ensuring that police officers are hired on a probationary basis will help to ensure the public that they will have the best they can on the force and make sure that they have police officers that do their jobs correctly while providing public safety. If we had a police force that was unorganized and under trained (under qualified for the position) the crime rate would likely increase due to lack of a well ran police headquarters.
Bohm, R., & Haley, K. Introduction to criminal justice. (Seventh edition ed., p. 141).
2. Explain the main components of community policing. Identify the four steps in a community policing approach to problem solving and give an example of each. (respond with a minimum of 200 words) The main components of community policing are community partnership, problem solving and change management. Establishing and maintaining mutual trust between citizens of a community and the police force are essential to community policing. The community, as well as the police, needs to identify potential problems, propose solutions and implement a solution.
There is a four step problem solving process referred to as SARA: Scanning- indentifying the problem; Analysis- understanding underlying conditions; Response- developing and implementing solutions; Assessment- determining the solutions effect (Bohm & Haley). An example for scanning would be observing the problem of people speeding through school zones and seeing the potential dangers for students crossing the street. Analysis would be to understand the potential dangers for the students that may be crossing the street during this time and the risk of being hit, or other problems that could occur from people speeding through a school zone. Response would be to develop a solution, place a police officer to conduct traffic and ensure that drivers are following the correct speed for the school zone. Assessment would be to look back after about a week to see if placing the police officer in the school zone had a positive effect on people speeding through the school zone.
Bohm, R., & Haley, K. Introduction to criminal justice. (Seventh edition ed., p. 229).
3. Review the Law Enforcement Officer Code of Ethics in Figure 6.1 on page 200. In your opinion, which three Canons are the most important and why? (respond with a minimum of 200 words) The most important Canons in my personal opinion would be (1) the primary responsibility of police officers and organization is the protection of citizens by upholding the law and respecting the legally expressed will of the whole community and not a particular party or clique (2) police officers should be aware of the legal limits on their authority and the “genius of the American system,” which limits the power of individuals, groups, and institutions, and (3) police officers are responsible for being familiar with the law and not only their responsibilities but also those of other public officials (Bohm & Haley). I chose Canon number one because public safety is the number one goal for a police officer.
Making sure that the officer will uphold the law to everyone in a fair manner is also a must, in other words an officer needs to be mentally capable of arresting their mother if it was deemed necessary. The reason I chose Canon number two was because an officer should never take advantage of their authority towards a citizen. There are a lot of officers that take advantage of their authority towards citizens and that causes the public to lose respect towards other officers, it is something that needs to be enforced. I also chose Canon number three because an officer needs to be familiar with the law so that they are able to enforce the law, if an officer does not know the laws then they will not always enforce it when someone is breaking it. Making sure that you keep other officers and public officials in line are important, if you are an officer and you see another officer breaking the law do not be hesitant to call it out as you see it; that is your job after all.
Bohm, R., & Haley, K. Introduction to criminal justice. (Seventh edition ed., p. 200).
4. List and describe some of the ways to control and reduce police corruption. (minimum 100 words)
There are many different ways to control and reduce police corruption. One way would be to select and maintain officers that have high moral standards. After hiring them ensure that you train them not only on the physical aspects and knowledge of the laws, but also giving ethical decision classes towards the law would be very helpful. Also having police policies and discipline towards the breaking of those policies will help to reduce police corruption. Having a proactive internal affairs unit that will conduct internal investigations will help to keep an eye on officers to ensure that they uphold their proper duties. (Bohm & Haley).
Bohm, R., & Haley, K. Introduction to criminal justice. (Seventh edition ed., p. 267).
5. “Police Corps,” a military-style police academy, has been employed in some U.S. cities. The cadets of the mentally exhausting 6-month program eat, sleep, and live together in rooms near the academy with no televisions and with the constant threat of surprise inspections. Their days involve marching in military formation with a platoon leader barking out cadences, weight lifting, and classes on self-defense as well as law and criminal procedure. Afternoons are spent at the firing range, where they train with pistols, MP-5 submachine guns, and AR-15 assault rifles.
After ending their days at 10 P.M. with little or no time for themselves to relax or study, they are occasionally awakened at 2 A.M. as instructors push them for practice in high-speed driving and patrolling tactics. At some point in the course, the cadets are put through 24 to 72 hours of sleep deprivation to teach them the effects of stress and lack of sleep on their bodies. The punishment for not following orders correctly is pushups. Supporters of the style maintain that the Navy SEAL–type training will help officers become more disciplined and community-oriented. Critics contend that the program is too extreme and isn’t necessary for a community police force, that it “isn’t needed in our society unless we’re in a warfare environment.”