I. Chapter 6: SEMANTICS: The study of meaning and denotation EXERCISE 8 (page 224) a. A second is part of a minute A minute is part of an hour An hour is part of a day * A second is a part of an hour, and it is also a part of a day. It is a transitive relation because a minute, an hour and a day express the same thing which is Time. b. The toenail is part of the toe The toe is part of the foot. The foot is part of the leg * The toenail is part of the leg. It is also a transitive relation because leg, foot, toe and even toenail are parts of body.
c. Henry’s toe is part of Henry Henry is part of the 23rd Battalion But Henry’s toe is not part of the 23rd Battalion. * It is not a transitive relation because Henry’s toe is only a part of his body, it cannot represent as Henry as the whole. II. Chapter 9: PRAGMATICS: The study of language use and communication EXERCISE 7 (page 250) The sentence I promise I will call the police if you don’t quiet down is not literally and directly used to promise nor warn.
According to the theories of Bach and Harnish 1979, Recanati 1987, this sentence is not directly used to promise but rather are directly used to do what declarative sentences normally do – declare or state. It is only indirectly used to promise and warn. The sentence I promise I will call the police if you don’t quiet down is used directly to state or declare that the speaker is promising, and indirectly it is used to promise that the speaker will call the police if someone doesn’t quiet down and warn that the speaker will call the police if someone doesn’t quiet down.
In my opinion, this sentence tends to be used as a warn more than a promise. EXERCISE 10 (page 10) a. A rolling stone gathers no moss Meaning: This proverb refers to a person who does not settle down is not attached to anything or anyone. If a person never stays in one place, he or she never “gathers” or gets attached to things or people. Moss grows on stones which have been on the ground for many years, so a stone which rolls cannot grow moss. The saying is ” A rolling stone gathers no moss. ” It means if you keep moving and learning that you don’t just sit there becoming a couch potato.
It is true a rolling stone gathers no moss but only overtime. At the begging of the rock rolling then it will gather moss, but overtime it will lose all the moss it has gained. The term ‘rolling stone’ commonly refers to a person who is frequently changing his work or profession. Just as a stone that is continually rolling doesn’t gather any moss on it, similarly a person who is constantly changing his occupation doesn’t succeed in any achievement. Acquisition of wealth or learning or experience requires time and steady prolonged application of energy to some tasks.
On the other hand one who is constantly chopping and changing will never become wealthy or learned or experienced. He will merely be dissipating his energies and will get nowhere. The popular fable of the farmer who dug many shallow wells in his farm in search of water is a fine illustration. Had he dug deep at one place, he would have definitely found water. By being ‘a rolling stone’ few people accomplish their goals. In today’s world of breakneck competition, migratory birds stand absolutely no chance. It is by working at a place, putting in constant labour that one earns a reputation and recognition.
The intended message: This adverb can be understood as an advice to people “ You should worl single-mindedly at one work. You shouln’t change your work so frequently”. b. Look before you leap Meaning: This proverb simply means that you must think before you act. Before you do something (or “leap” into something) you must consider the consequences (or “look”) of your actions. The intented message: “Be careful! ” c. A stitch in time saves nine. Meaning: This proverb tells that timely effort will prevent more work later.
A little preventative maintenance can eliminate the need for repairs later. This proverb warns us against neglecting small faults or imperfections which may lead to further damage or increased problems later. “A stitch in time saves nine” advises us to realize the value of time management and that small things do make a big difference. We should all learn that it is best to work diligently, consciensciously, and carefully while using our time wisely and efficiently. The intended message: “Do it now, don’t wait till it’s too late”