?Tourism is an integrated system where all the elements are linked taking into account the relationships between tourism and economic, social, cultural and physical environment. In order to develop Strathnagar village as a sustainable tourist and habitable destination, a harmony is required between the needs of a visitor, the destination and the community. Tourism creates an incentive for environmental conservation, preservation of sensitive areas. There are many examples from Scotland where tourism has promoted restoration and preservation of historic sites also tourism encouraged conservation of natural resources.
Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park created in 2002 and Cairngorm National Park created in 2003 were designed under the national Parks (Scotland) Act 2000. The main aim was to conserve, enhance and promote the natural beauty and cultural heritage for current and future generations. Transport has been heavily blamed in the last few years because of fuel emissions. For this reason cycling has been promoted across the UK as environmentally friendly transport type by a charity called Sustarns. Since then over 10.
000 miles of cycle paths have been created to decrease the harm of environment. In Strathnagar village along the bird sanctuary is a site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) managed by Scottish Natural Heritage. It is likely that this organization will continue and extend conservation and preservation works in the future if there are sustainable developments involved in the village. However, there are a number of negative impacts on environment as a consequence of tourism growth and activities taken by tourists. This includes erosions, pollution and wild life disturbance.
To minimize the harmful impacts in the area certain procedures should be taken in Srathnagar village. Business owners should become members of Visit Scotland’s Green Tourism Assurance Scheme. It aims to help businesses working in the hospitality sector achieve efficiency and marketing benefits by managing their environmental responsibilities. Tourists are coming to Scotland and natives are travelling around the country, because of a desire to see the natural scenery and wildlife Scotland has to offer. However, irresponsible tourism and properly unmanaged sites lead to the destruction of biodiversity.
Tourist activities impact directly and indirectly on ecosystems. Indirect pressure on plants and animals may result from increased levels of emissions of various trace-gases through leisure-related transport. Direct impact on the ecosystems would have if natural environments are put under strain when the “Carrying Capacity” of the area or resource is exceeded. Also Through destruction of ecosystems and habitats, draining of wetlands, unsustainable use of land, trampling, tent camps, etc. tourist contribute directly to the disturbance of ecosystems.
85% of European coasts are at high or moderate risk from development related pressures as 2/3 of Europe’s tourism is based on coastlines. Coral reefs are the most vulnerable in the ecosystem, easily can be damaged from snorkelers and scuba divers. In Trinidad and Tobago island massive developments have damaged beaches and destroyed the habitat of turtles where they lay their eggs. While in Jamaica unsustainable constructions has caused severe beach erosion due to the obliteration of sand dunes and also cause wetland destruction.
The tourism sector as a whole, along with tourists should be encouraged to minimize any negative impacts and maximize positive impacts on biodiversity and local cultures associated with their consumption choices and behavior, for example through voluntary initiatives, information events, controlling the number of visitor and implementing codes of conduct. Generally, every country wants to attract tourists and generate as much income from tourism as possible. Tourism has been seen as a positive factor, it provides jobs and people have personal empowerment.
In Strathnagar village tourism would allow to preserve and revive the cultures, traditions and crafts. Good example is “Rumsiskes” the open- air museum in Lithuania. It displays the heritage of Lithuanian rural life in authentic resurrected buildings where people lived and worked. The traditions, crafts and dances where revived that was almost forgotten. The money from Tourism and tourist demand helped to restore and keep it for the future generations. However, according to Doxey’s irritation index (1975) a four stage model of the slow decline in host visitor relations exists: Euphoria (delight in contact)
Apathy (increasing indifference with larger numbers) Irritation (concern and annoyance) Antagonism (convert and overt aggression to visitors) The most recognized negative cultural impacts are cultural degradation and trivialization, also when cultural events are turned into staged events that have direct adverse effects on traditional ways of life on the distinctiveness of local cultures. The places like Spanish Resorts and Caribbean Islands have become identikit resorts that have nothing in common with traditional culture. Locals are basically annoyed by tourists as they lost the privacy and tranquility.
People understand the benefits that tourism gives, but on the same time feel as they are losing the traditions and authentic culture. Benidorm reached critical stage- full physical “carrying capacity” is exceeded during the high season; there is no accommodation and certain services available. Aboriginal or indigenous communities such as Australia, Masi Mara are transformed (in order to earn some money) and requested to display significant cultural events for tour companies no matter the time and adequacy. Strathnagar is going to start at Euphoria stage; community is excited about the new life.
However, to avoid quick decline in host visitor relations community should control the number of visitors, modify their behavior by extending the season, spreading the busy seasons and adapting the resources. Separate, reasonable size car parking should be provided in order to avoid visitors parking at local’s windows. Most common negative impacts on socio- culture are tradition degradation, trivialization and when cultural events are turned into staged events. According to VisitScotland Statistics, Tourism in Scotland is worth approx ? 4bn, employs 9% of the workforce and pays more wages than oil, gas and whisky industries combined.
Moreover it gives a chance for communities in rural areas such as Strathnagar village to have jobs and not to consider moving from the place they have been living happily for since birth. However, Tourism not only creates jobs in the sector, it also encourages growth in the primary and secondary sectors of industry. This is known as the multiplier effect which is how many times money spent by a tourist circulates through a country’s economy. The money spent by a tourist in Strathnagar village for example in a hotel would help to create jobs directly in the hotel, also would create jobs indirectly elsewhere in the economy.
If hotel buys food from local farmer, that farmer can spend some of this money on clothes. The demand for local products increases as tourists often buy souvenirs, which increases secondary employment. The multiplier effect continues until the money eventually ‘leaks’ from the economy through imports – the purchase of goods from other countries, tourists not spending money at the destination, tour operators sending tourists on all- inclusive package and leaving the great deal of profit at tourists generating country not receiving.
In Thailand estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food, etc. ). The positive fact is that the employment level will rise in Strathnagar village and the tourists will use the services and spend money. Direct jobs will be available for tour guides, housekeeping, catering staff, and gardeners. Indirect jobs for joiners, builders and induced- improvements in health and transport services. However there will arise and negative aspects such as low wages, no highly skilled jobs, no chance to keep younger generation.
Also village could be highly affected by seasonality; it is hard to attract tourists during the winter. Community might not get any support from council as it is a small and badly impacted by seasonality. There is a chance to extend the season or to attract visitors by launching traditional food, arts and crafts festivals and corporate events in Crafts and Arts Centre which might be a good way to minimize the seasonality. Dumfries and Galloway is a very popular tourist destination during the summer, but not so much in low seasons.
The Art festival called Spring Fling was launched to attract visitors and it is on every April. However, in order to protect the natural and built environments that tourism is dependent on, certain measures should be in place. Visitor Management is an approach that which aims to protect environment (social, environmental) while providing for visitor enjoyment. Visitor Management can be at the Micro level (national, regional, or area) or at the Macro level (settlement, site or attraction). There are many organizations across the globe that is considered as the main tools for sustainability and managing tourism.
Historical Scotland helps towards conservation and preservation of cultural and historic buildings, landscapes and sites. Visit Scotland provides signage, code of conducts to minimize negative impacts, national designed National Tourist routes, theme trails for tourists to navigate easily, increase the geographical spread and avoid unnecessary wandering. Also provides marketing, promotion to the area and encourage visitor behaviour through education and interpretation methods. Tourism Management Programmes (TMPs) are designed to benefit visitor, place and host by adopting a multifaceted planning approach.
National Parks aims to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage and promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by public. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) that aims to create the conditions for dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples, based upon respect for commonly shared values. It contributes to sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, communication, culture and information.
There are three main visitor management techniques used to overcome or minimize negative impacts from tourism developments: Control Volume of visitors: limit numbers, encourage alternative visiting times, extend tourist season Modify Behaviour of visitors: codes of conduct, interpretation, education Adapt resources: harden footpaths, construct purpose built facilities (walk- ways hides etc) The visitor management techniques can be divided in to two following forms: Hard measures occur when restricting physical and financial on access.
(Parking fees, road closures, zoning, fencing, limited visitor numbers) Zoning and paid roads are common thing in big cities such as Moscow and London. Certain fees need to be paid in order to pass the bridge or enter other zone. Also hard measures are applied when during the festival or any other celebration the city centre is closed and any type of motor transport in not permitted. In Edinburgh that happens during the Hoghmoney when all action takes in the city centre. Soft measures – associated with encouraging desired behaviours rather than restricting undesirable ones.
(Education, interpretation, marketing and promotion) In Scottish Boarders Forest District the soft measures has been implemented to manage the tourists and minimise the impacts from tourism activities. Signposting for mountain- trail has been provided. The Osprey Visitor Centre offers a variety of information and education for people of different ages. A lot of illustrative material is offered. Local volunteers are integrated in the educational activities. Available rangers on site to help and give needed advice. In Strathnagar village it is recommended to apply soft measure management techniques through education and interpretation.
The signage should be provided to direct and guide visitors in the area. Moreover the community should consider establishing the Visitor Information Centre where leaflets, guides and verbal advice could be given to visitors. Also it is recommended to provide car parking facilities in order to avoid conflicts with locals as visitors may park on locals’ driveway. There are plenty examples for educating tourism suppliers, tour operators and visitors on sustainable tourism practice: Codes of Conduct for Visitors SNH outdoor access code
The Code is based on three key principles and these apply equally to the public and to the land owners: Respect the interests of other people Care for the environment Take responsibility for your own actions Responsible access can be enjoyed over most of Scotland including urban parks, hills and woods, beaches, lochs, rivers and canals. VisitScotland Responsible Visitors Guide It is a guide for visitors to follow the simple steps to play the part in caring for our outstanding natural environment, fantastic wildlife and rich cultural heritage whilst supporting the local communities along the way.
Codes of Conduct for tourism Suppliers Wild Scotland Wild Scotland produced Responsible Professional Wildlife Watching guide in order to provide a safe, professional and responsible wildlife watching experience for the tourists. VisitScotland Sustainability Team There is a clear mandate for VisitScotland to help drive sustainability within the tourism sector in Scotland. This is provided by the Scottish Government Economic Strategy and the Tourism Framework for Change, and is reflected in the VisitScotland Corporate Plan 2010/13.
VisitScotland’s Sustainable Tourism Strategy 2010 – 2015 provides a clear rationale and plan for delivering our aspirations for sustainable tourism over the next five years. We will contribute to a more sustainable future for Scotland through taking direct action on issues under our control and playing an influencing role where this is not possible. This will include support for the implementation of sustainable tourism strategies at the national and local level. Business events programme
The National Funding Programme complements the International Funding Programme and plays an integral role in developing domestic tourism across Scotland. By supporting events which take place outside the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, EventScotland is also growing Scotland’s wider events portfolio which forms the backbone of our events industry. Guidance Booklets The Business Waste Guidance Booklet is provided by VisitScotland for tourism businesses gives for tourism suppliers more detailed information on waste management and how to reduce your business waste.
Tourist Signposting in Scotland- the purpose of this document is to explain which visitor facilities may be eligible for Tourist Signposting in Scotland and how to apply. Tourist Signposting is a fundamental part of providing a welcome for our visitors. In determining who is eligible for Tourist Signposting accreditation, VisitScotland uses Quality Assurance schemes to ensure that our visitors are directed to facilities that offer a consistent quality experience. Conclusion
There are many positive and negative impacts on environment, socio- culture, economy from tourist activities and generally the travel and tourism industry. Tourism providers need to bear in mind that they are responsible for the damage the irresponsible tourism does and ensure that the experience for the visitors will be provided in sustainable and less harmful way Strathnagar is beautiful village with loads of potential to develop a sustainable tourism destination with a help of organizations involved.