1. What is a competency? What are its characteristics? How is it different from Job Description? Competency: Competencies refer to skills or knowledge that leads to superior performance. These are formed through an individual/organization’s knowledge, skills and abilities and provide a framework for distinguishing between poor performances through to exceptional performance. Competencies can apply at organizational, individual, team, and occupational and functional levels.
Competencies are individual abilities or characteristics that are key to effectiveness in work. Some examples of competencies required by the employees are: 1. Adaptability 2. Commitment 3. Creativity 4. Motivation 5. Foresight 6. Leadership 7. Independence 8. Emotional Stability 9. Analytical Reasoning and 10. Communication Skills Characteristics of Competencies ? ? ? ? ? ? Competencies are the characteristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which result in effective performance within an organizational area.
The best way to understand performance is to observe what people actually do to be successful rather than relying on assumptions pertaining to trait and intelligence. The best way to measure and predict performance is to assess whether people have key competencies. Competencies can be learnt and developed. They should be made visible/accessible. They should be linked to meaningful life outcomes that describe how people should perform in the real world 3|P a ge Common difference Competencies & Job Description.
Competencies • • • • • Underlying characteristic of a person’s inputs. Clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills. Generic knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skill. Personal characteristics. Set of skills, related knowledge and attributes. On the other hand, Job Description • • • • • Superior performance in a given job, role or a situation. Individual’s ability to perform. Linked to superior performance on the job. Contribute to effective managerial performance. Successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job.
4|P a ge 2. What are the different types of competencies? What is their relevance? 1. Behavioral Competency: Behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that contribute to individual success in the organization ? ? ? Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a job family, career level or position For example:- teamwork and cooperation, communication Focus on the person 2. Technical or functional Competency: Specific knowledge and skills needed to be able to perform one’s job effectively ? ? ?
Job specific and relate to success in a given job or job family For example:- knowledge of accounting principles, knowledge of human resource law and practice Focus on the job A trainer requires a different set of competencies than an accountant, and a teller requires a different set than a maintenance worker. If there are different levels within the same position, then each job level might also have its own set of vertically derived competencies 3. Core Competency: ? ? A core competency is defined as an internal capability that is critical to the success of business.
These are organizational competencies that all individuals are expected to possess. These competencies define what the organization values the most in people. For example:- an organization might want each individual to possess teamwork, flexibility and communication skills. 5|P a ge 4. Threshold competency: ? ? The characteristics required by a jobholder to perform a job effectively are called threshold competencies. For the position of a typist it is necessary to have primary knowledge about typing, which is a threshold competency.
5. Differentiating competency: ? ? The characteristics, which differentiate superior performers from average performers, come under this category; such characteristics are not found in average performers. Knowledge of formatting is a competency that makes a typist to superior to others in performance, which is a differentiating competency. 6|P a ge 3. What is the difference between Assessment Centre and Development Centre? Differences between Assessment and Development centers Assessment centers usually ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Have a pass/fail criteria are geared towards filing a job vacancy address an immediate organizational need have fewer assessors and more participants involve line managers as assessors have less emphasis placed on self-assessment focus on what the candidate can do now are geared to meet the needs of the organization assign the role of judge to assessors place emphasis on selection with little or no developmental feedback and follow up give feedback at a later date involve the organization having control over the information obtained have very little pre-centre briefing tend to be used with external candidates.
Development centers usually ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? do not have a pass/fail criteria are geared towards developing the individual address a longer term need have a 1:1 ratio of assessor to participant do not have line managers as assessors have a greater emphasis placed on self-assessment focus on potential are geared to meet needs of the individual as well as the organization assign the role of facilitator to assessors place emphasis on developmental feedback and follow up with little or no selection function 7|P a ge ? ? ? ?
give feedback immediately involve the individual having control over the information obtained have a substantial pre-centre briefing tend to be used with internal candidates 8|P a ge 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Assessment Centre and Development Centre? Assessment Centers: Assessment centers consist of a number of exercises designed to assess the full range of skills and personal attributes required for the job. Advantages: ? Assessment centers map the next level challenges and simulate them in exercises. This raises the validity of the assessment tool.
The old way of evaluating the person based on past performance does not work many times, as the challenges of the next level are different from the challenges in the existing position. Assessment centers not only help the organization in placing the right candidate for the right job/assignment but also help in developing the participants. When participants see others handling the same exercise differently, it gives them an insight into their own performance thereby raises the credibility of the selection procedure. It appeals to the lay person’s logic and therefore is regarded as a fair means of assessment by the participants.
Assessment Centers can be customized for different kinds of jobs, competencies and organizational requirements. They are far more accurate than a standard recruitment process as they allow a broader range of selection methods to be used during the process. They enable interviewers to assess existing performance as well as predict future job performance. They give the opportunity to assess and differentiate between candidates who seem very similar – in terms of quality – on paper. They give the candidates a better insight into the role as they are tested on exercises, which are typical for the role they have applied for.
They help employers build an employer brand. Candidates who attend assessment centers which genuinely reflect the job and the organization are often impressed by that company, even if they are rejected. The cost of an assessment centre is usually cheaper compared with the potential cost of many recruitment phases and the cost of recruitment errors. 9|P a ge ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? They are a fair process – they complement an organization’s diversity agenda and ensure that people are selected on the basis of merit alone. Disadvantages: ? ? ? ? ? Assessment Centers are very costly and time consuming.
Assessment Centers requires highly skilled observers as the observers may bring in their own perceptions and biases while evaluating. Those who receive poor assessment might become de-motivated and might lose confidence in their abilities. New recruits with high expectations can feel disappointed if the assessment centre has encouraged them to believe the job or organization fits their values if, in fact, it does not. If you haven’t defined the key competencies prior to the event – and a way to measure these competencies – you will only be able to compare candidates on anecdotal details.