School can be particularly challenging for children with special needs, including those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, who often experience poor academic performance, behavior problems, and difficulties with social interaction. The situation can be further complicated by the fact that there is no typical, predictable classroom style common to all children with special needs, for that matter.
It can also be hard for parents to tell how much of any problem identified by a teacher falls into the normal range of a child development, for example how much is due to ADHD, and how much is due to coexisting problem such as learning disability, anxiety disorder, or disruptive behavior and others. Add to this fact that the public school system here in the Philippines may not have Individualized Education Program (IEP) that will meet the needs of these special children.
In this study, the researcher will use different basic methods of assessing special education curriculum how it may be integrated into the mainstream or general education particularly in the Philippine public school system, without compromising quality of education. Objectives of the Study The objectives of this research proposal are a) to assess the basic curriculum of special education; b) to identify the positive and negative effect of the integration of such curriculum with the general education in the mainstream classroom and c) to identify effective classroom and teaching styles of special education.
Statement of the Problem So many parents who have a child with special needs, particularly ADHD, have a dilemma when it comes to placing their children in public school system in the Philippines, since they are not included in the public school curriculum. And most public school teachers, if not some, may not be fully aware of the special needs of a child with ADHD and for that matter, does not have special skills in dealing with such students.
Only special schools or some private schools deal with special children or include special education in their general education curriculum. On November 2005, my six-year old daughter was diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Since she was moving up to first grade, sending her to a public school was practical and a good choice, yet doubtful that the public school system has educational intervention for children with special needs like her, within the mainstream classroom setting.
Her developmental pediatrician suggested for a behavioral therapy and tutorial through a SPED School, for that matter but it was important for my child to interact with children her age in a normal classroom setting, so the plan did not push through. . Scope and Limitation The Department of Education often stresses the need for a good public education which is free and accessible to every child in the country, including children with special needs, particularly those with Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who came from all levels of society.
It is therefore important to assess and evaluate special education curriculum to see if it can be integrated in the mainstream classroom. The special education evaluation process requires the school district to assess the student in all areas related to the suspected disability as well as conducting a comprehensive educational assessment for integration to happen in a normal classroom. Most educators believe that children with disabilities and nondisabled children should be taught together whenever possible.
Isolating children with disabilities may lower their self-esteem and may reduce their ability to deal with other people. The practice of integrating children with disabilities into regular school programs is called mainstreaming, or inclusion. Students with disabilities attend special classrooms or schools only if their need for very specialized services makes mainstreaming impossible. Many children with disabilities attend regular classes most of the school day: They work with a specially trained teacher for part of each day to improve specific skills.
These sessions may be held in a classroom called a resource room, which may be equipped with such materials as Braille typewriters and relief maps for blind students. Other students with disabilities attend special classes most of the day but join the rest of the children for certain activities. For example, students with mental retardation (MR) may join other children who do not have MR for art and physical education. Although the place where instruction occurs (the setting) is seen as important in the field of special education, the types of curricular modifications and interventions may be a more important area to focus on in the future.
Hypothesis This research is important in giving helpful ideas in relation to a child with special needs, especially with ADHD, and the effect of learnings he will get, especially in the public school setting, which gives free education to all. This research will help foster a child’s academic and social success in school through a good curriculum designed specifically for his needs, by assessing general education curriculum through the Curriculum-based evaluation and other related tools for assessment and evaluation. This research will deal on the questions: 1.
What type of school-related challenges children face most often? 2. How effective is the special education curriculum to children with special needs and what areas need improvement? 3. Which classroom structures, teachings styles and accommodations can best support the child’s learning? 4. How can the integration affect the mainstream classroom? CHAPTER II Related Literature Blankenship, C. S. , (1985). Using curriculum-based assessment data to make instructional decisions. Exceptional Children, 52, 233-238. This article is part of a special issue of Exceptional Children devoted to Curriculum-Based Assessment.
Blankenship describes the essential features of CBA and provides suggestions for development. She places a special emphasis on describing how teachers can use CBA for curriculum placement, materials, and instructional procedures. CBA and CBM Compare and Contrast www. teacherstoolkit. com/classroom1. htm CBA and CBM are compared and contrasted on this Web site. This is a good site for educators who are new to Curriculum-Based Evaluation as basic differences between CBA and CBM are described. A few articles and books are referenced. CBA Techniques www. johnvenn.
com/assessment. htm The author of this site, John Venn, is a professor of education at the University of North Florida and is a good resource for teachers who are interested in implementing CBA in their classrooms. Venn lists in-class assessment and alternative grading strategies. He stresses how CBA techniques are quick, easy and that any teacher can use them. Deno, S. L. , (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: the emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52(3), 219-232. Deno introduces CBM as an alternative assessment approach that is both valid and reliable.
He discusses the advantages and disadvantages of informal observation and also standardized commercial achievement tests. Dizon, Edilberto I. , Ed. D. An Article: Educational Intervention for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. UP College of Education, 1998. This article discusses the priorities and guidelines in teaching children with ADHD. The author discussed how to assess the classroom that would enable teachers to decide on appropriate placement and design a customized educational program for the child, even at a mainstream classroom.
He also talked about structure within in the classroom, its organization of chairs and tables and seating arrangements and the workspace for the child. It is also important to assess the curriculum and its contents. To make sure that there is provision of task-analyzing for the different skills of the child, to adopt anticipatory teaching and guidance which emphasize foresight and preventive intervention. Supervisors should be able to assess if teachers are able to focus on processes as much as outcome in their teaching and are able implement good behavioral management inside the classroom.
Hall, T. , & Mengel, M. (2002). Curriculum-based evaluations. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved [3/22/2008] from http://www. cast. org/publications/ncac/ncac_curriculumbe. html This publication includes discussions on academic assessment, which is a long-standing tradition in education. Assessment usually involves measurement of student progress for the purpose of informing. One level of informing is identification or eligibility decision-making, a second level is that of informing instruction.
Traditional assessment instruments have limitations which restrict their application for instructional program planning. It also introduces alternative assessment procedures appearing in educational literature in the last 20 years are Curriculum-Based Evaluations (CBE). Whereas standardized commercial achievement tests measure broad curriculum areas and/or skills, CBE measures specific skills that are presently being taught in the classroom, usually in basic skills. It further states that assessment usually involves measurement of student progress for the purpose of informing.
The author reviewed the beginning of CBE, wherein many of its systems had their beginnings in the special education domain. In some cases, research began specifically in the self-contained special education classroom. In others, the roots of the measurement system sprang from the desire to most appropriately integrate students with disabilities into the general education classroom. The tools described here under the name of Curriculum-Based Evaluations all had important roles and made contributions in research and practice in the general education class.
Peters, Helen. An Article: Understanding and Educating Children with ADHD. Winston Churchill Fellow. 1998 This article was written as an overview in educating children with ADHD. The author describes children with ADHD and how to identify these children at the early years. She discussed about the rules in assessing ADHD. In classroom assessment, the author came up with four important questions in order for a teacher to have an effective classroom management. Understanding the different learning styles for special children was also discussed in this article.
A series of questions were asked when thinking how to support the learning needs of the ADHD child was also included in this paper. The author also mentioned the school’s response to academic failure and the importance of visual display of lessons. Reiff, Michael I. , & Tippins, Sherill, (2004). The American Academy of Pediatrics: ADHD: A Complete and Authoritative Guide. Your Child at School, 155-193. American Academy of Pediatrics. This book will help readers apply the most current evidence-based and best-practice approaches for finding solutions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Many important topics are addressed in this book including the advice on management techniques for school and home. In the chapter Your Child at School, readers will learn the type of school-related challenges children with ADHD face most often, the classroom structures, school policies, teaching styles and accommodations that can be beneficial for child with ADHD learns and how to individualized education program can work with a child, his teachers and even his pediatrician. CHAPTER III Methodology and Procedure 1.
Conduct a literature review on special education curriculum and the public education system in the Philippines. 2. Observe a special education class for 1 hour everyday, for one week, focusing mostly on the curriculum, classroom and behavioral management and teacher’s skills, using the CBE Curriculum-Based Evaluations are best defined by Deno (1987) as “any set of measurement procedures that use direct observation and recording of a student’s performance in a local curriculum as a basis for gathering information to make instructional decisions” (in Shinn, 1989; p.
62): • 3. Interview a public school superintendent/principal and teachers to attempt to gather reactions on the integration of special education curriculum into the general education system. The following questions will be: • a. What is the general curriculum in the regular classroom? • b. What are the aids, services or changes to the educational program that would help the child learn and achieve? • c. What do you think are your strategies to help the child with behavior, if behavior is an issue? • d.
How can your student with special needs be involved and progress in the general curriculum? • e. How can your student participate in extracurricular and other activities? and • f. How can he/she be educated with other children, both with and without disabilities? 4. Interview a special education supervisor and teachers to attempt to gather reactions on the integration of special education curriculum into the general education system. While the interviews will not be formal or structured, the kinds of questions I will ask include the following: a.
What type of school-related challenges children face most often? b. How effective is the special education curriculum to children with special needs and what areas need improvement? c. Which classroom structures, teachings styles and accommodations can best support the child’s learning? d. How can the integration affect the mainstream classroom? 5. Write a research report that combines my understanding of the special education issue and previous research with the results of my empirical research. [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]