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ASQ Agile v Waterfall Essay

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Lisa Sieverts, PMP, PMI-ACP

Phil Ailes, PMI-ACP

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agenda



What is a Project
Overview
–  Traditional Project Management
–  Agile Project Management
The Differences
–  Product Life Cycle
–  The Teams
–  Requirements
–  WBS/Product Backlog
–  Schedule
–  Risk
–  Quality
Q&A

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
What is a Project?

•  Temporary
•  Goal
•  Constrained
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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
What makes projects special?

•  Projects are

characterized by
uncertainty

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Traditional Waterfall Projects

•  Traditional Waterfall Projects
–  Dates from the end of WWII
–  Grew out of Defense industry
–  Based on Deming Cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act
–  Emphasizes heavy up-front analysis
–  Lots of documentation
–  PMBOK versions 1-4
©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Traditional Waterfall Project
High
Medium
Requirements
Low
Optional
High
Design

Medium
Low
Optional
High
Development Medium
Low
Optional
High
Testing

Medium
Low
Optional
High
Deploy

Medium
Low
Optional

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Waterfall – Advantages

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Waterfall – Advantages

•  Established Processes- Project Management Body of
Knowledge

•  Management Controls
•  (Apparent) Predictability
•  Great for low uncertainty/high dependency projects
–  Construction
–  Update of established product
–  Maintenance projects
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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Waterfall – Disadvantages

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Waterfall – Disadvantages

•  Sometimes is more about the Process than the
Product

•  Keeps the customer at bay – by the time they see the end results it may be too late

•  Project teams often become rigid and resistant to
change: “Those darn users keep changing their
minds.”

•  Long product development time

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agile Project Management

•  The Agile Way
–  Experiments in the 1990s
–  Values self-organizing teams
–  No formal “project
management”

–  Iterative approach
–  Flexible

©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Manifesto

The Agile Manifesto for Software Development

–  “We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:

•  Individuals and interactions over processes and tools •  Working software over comprehensive documentation
•  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
•  Responding to change over following a plan
–  That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.”

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Agile Way

Sprints – High Priority Features

Integrate

Test

Sprints – Low Priority Features

Integrate

Test

Integrate

Test

Design
Test

Test
Develop

Integrate

Test

Demo & Feedback

Develop

Requirements

Test

Test

Develop

Sprints – Optional Priority Features

Demo & Feedback

Requirements

Design
Test

Design
Test

Demo & Feedback

Develop

Requirements

Test

Demo & Feedback

Requirements

Design
Test

Sprints – Medium Priority Features

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agile – Advantages

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agile – Advantages

•  Shorter development cycles
•  Customer participates, providing direct feedback
•  Team-ownership – developers, testers, analysts and
customers work together

•  Process encourages and easily adapts to change
•  Improved quality because testing is continuous

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agile – Disadvantages

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Agile – Disadvantages

•  Lack of established processes
•  Management resistance to change
•  Reduced (apparent) predictability
•  Requires culture change
•  It’s new – there isn’t a lot to draw upon

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Project Life Cycle

•  Traditional:
waterfall
– Initiate
– Plan
– Define
– Design
– Build
– Test

•  Agile Projects:
iterative
– Envision
– Speculate
– Explore
– Adapt
– Close
– Repeat as
necessary

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Team

•  Waterfall
– Sponsor
– Product

Manager
– Project
Manager
– The Team –
defined roles

•  Agile
– Sponsor
– Product

Owner
– Scrum
Master
– The Team –
variable
roles

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Requirements

•  Waterfall
–  Large

Document
–  Formal, based
on analysis
–  Performed by
Business
Analyst
–  Completed
before any
development
begins

•  Agile
–  Small Index
Cards

–  User Stories,

based on
conversation
–  Performed by
the Product
Owner
–  Completed
“just in time”

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Foundation Documents

Waterfall
–  Work Breakdown
Structure

100 % of Scope

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Foundation Documents

Agile
–  The Product Backlog

Roman Pichler, Agile Product Management

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
The Schedule

•  Waterfall
–  Built before work
begins

–  End date is often

•  Agile
–  Rebuilt every sprint
–  End date evolves
based on team
velocity
–  Focused on nearterm accuracy
–  Emphasizes regular
delivery of working
features

predetermined
–  Strives to predict the
future
–  Emphasizes delivery
of the entire product

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Risk

•  Waterfall
–  Inherently high-risk

based on long
product cycles
–  Emphasizes the
ability to predict the
future
–  Risk Register

•  Agile
–  Inherently low-risk

based on customer
feedback
–  Emphasizes
adaptation to
changing
environment
–  Risk Register

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Quality

•  Waterfall
–  Testing is at the end

•  Agile
–  Testing begins before
development

of the project
–  Testers work
separately from
developers
–  User Acceptance
occurs at the end of
the project

–  Testers and

developers work
together
simultaneously
–  User Acceptance
occurs at end of
every sprint

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
What’s Different?

•  Waterfall
–  Plan all in advance
–  Work Breakdown
Structure

–  Functional specs
–  Gantt chart
–  Status reports
–  Deliver at the end
–  Learn at the end
–  Follow the plan
–  Manage tasks

•  Agile
–  Plan as you go
–  Product Backlog
–  User stories
–  Release plan
–  Story boards
–  Deliver as you go
–  Learn every sprint
–  Adapt everything
–  Team ownership

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Summary

•  Both Waterfall and Agile
have the same goals:

–  Delivering a well-

tested product that
satisfies the
customer within an
efficient time frame
that doesn’t leave
the team worn out

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Questions

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Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Thank You

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

Waterfall vs. Agile Project Management
Contact Us

•  Lisa Sieverts
–  Facilitated Change
–  www.lisasieverts.com
–  603.762.0235
•  Phil Ailes
–  Ailes Consulting
–  www.ailes-consulting.com
–  603.903.7051

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©Lisa Sieverts & Phil Ailes

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