Big Picture Questions
1. “The particular cultures and societies of Africa and of the Americas discussed in this chapter developed largely in isolation from one another.” What evidence would support this statement and what might challenge it?
2. “How do you understand areas of the world, such as Bantu Africa and North America, that did not generate “civilizations”? Do you see them as “backward”, as moving slowly toward civilization, or as simply different?
3. How did African proximity to Eurasia shape its history? And how did American separation from the Eastern Hemisphere affect its development?
4. “The histories of Africa and Americas during the second-wave era largely resemble those of Eurasia.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain why or why not.
Margin Review Questions
1. What similarities and differences are noticeable among the three major continents of the world?
2. How didthehistory of Meroë and Axumreflectinteraction with neighboring civilizations?
3. How does theexperienceoftheNiger Valleychallengeconventionalnotions of “civilization”?
4. With whatEurasian civilizations might the Maya be compared?
6. WhatkindofinfluencedidChavínexertin theAndes region?
7. WhatfeaturesofMochelifecharacterizeitas acivilization?
8. What was the significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the history of Andean Civilization?
9. What features common to all civilizations can you identify in the civilizations of Africa and the Americas? What distinguishing features give them a distinctive identity?
10. In what ways did the arrival of the Bantu-speaking peoples stimulate cross-cultural interaction?
11. In what ways were the histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders similar to each other, and how did they differ?
Ancestral Pueblo: Formerly known as the Anasazi, this people established a mixed agricultural and gathering/hunting societyin thesouthwestern partofNorth America. (pron. PWAY-blow) Apedemek: The lion god of classical Meroë; his popularity shows a turn away from Egyptian cultural influence. (pron. ah-PED-eh-mek) Axum: Classical-era kingdom of East Africa, in present-dayEritreaandnorthern Ethiopia; flourishedfrom 100to600c.e. (pron. AX-uhm) Bantu expansion: Gradual migration of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of eastern and southern Africa, a process thatbegan around 3000 b.c.e. and continued for several millennia. The agricultural techniques and ironworking technology of Bantu-speaking farmers gave them an advantage over the gathering and hunting peoples theyencountered. (pron. BAHN-too) Batwa: Forest-dwelling people of Central Africa who adopted some oftheways oftheirBantu neighbors whileretaining distinctivefeatures oftheirown culture; alsoknown as “Pygmies.”(pron. BAHT-wah) Cahokia: The dominant center of an important Mississippi valley mound-building culture, located near present-daySt. Louis, Missouri; flourishedfromabout900to1250c.e. (pron. cah-HOKE-ee-ah)
Chaco Phenomenon: Name given to a major process of settlement and societal organization that occurred in the period 860–1130 c.e.among the peoples of Chaco canyon, in what is now northwestern New Mexico; the society formed is notable for its settlement in large pueblos and for thebuilding ofhundreds ofmiles ofroads (thepurposeofwhich is notknown). (pron. CHAH-koh) Chavín: Andean town that was thecenterofalargePeruvian religious movementfromaround900to200 b.c.e. (pron. cha-BEAN) Coptic Christianity: The Egyptian variety of Christianity, distinctive in its belief that Christ has only a single, divinenature. Ezana: King of Axum in the early fourth century c.e. who established Christianity in his state. (pron. eh-TZAHN-ah) Hopewell culture: Named from its most important site (in present-day Ohio), this is the most elaborate andwidespreadoftheNorth American mound-building cultures; flourishedfrom200b.c.e. to400c.e. Jenne-jeno: Largest and most fully studied of the cities of the Niger Valley civilization. (pron. JENNay JENN-oh) Maya: Themajorclassicalcivilization ofMesoamerica; flourishedfrom250to900c.e.
Meroë: City in southern Nubia that was the center of Nubian civilization between 300 b.c.e. and 100 c.e. (pron. MER-oh-ee) Moche: An important regional civilization of Peru, governed by warrior-priests; flourished from around 100to800c.e. (pron. MO-che) Mound Builders: Members of any of a number of cultures that developed east of theMississippiRiverin what is now the United States and that are distinguished by their large earthen mounds, builtduring theperiod2000b.c.e. –1250c.e. Nazca: A civilization of southern coastalPeru, theNazcabecamefamous fortheirundergroundirrigation channels and their gigantic and mysterious lines in the desert in the form of monkeys, birds, spiders, andotherdesigns. (pron. NAHZ-kah) Niger Valley civilization:
Distinctive city-basedcivilization thatflourishedfromabout300b.c.e. toabout 900 c.e. in the floodplain of the middle Niger andthatincludedmajorcities likeJenne-jeno; theNiger Valley civilization is particularly noteworthy for its apparent lack of centralized state structures, having been organizedinsteadin clusters ofeconomicallyspecializedsettlements. pueblo: “Great house” of the Ancestral Pueblo people; a large, apartment building–like structure that couldhousehundreds ofpeople. “semi-sedentary”: Term frequently used to describe the peoples of the eastern woodlands oftheUnited States, Central America, the Amazon basin, and the Caribbean islands who combined partial reliance on agriculturewith gathering andhunting. Teotihuacán: The largest city of pre-Columbian America, with apopulation between 100,000and200,000; seemingly built to a plan in the Valley of Mexico, Teotihuacán flourished between 300 and 600 c.e., during which time it governed or influenced much of the surrounding region. The nameTeotihuacán is an Aztectermmeaning “cityofthegods.”(pron. teh-o-tee-WAH-kahn) Tikal: MajorMayacity, with apopulation ofperhaps 50,000people. (pron. TEE-kal)
Period 2: Organization & Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 BCE to c. 600 CE
Key Concept 2.1The Development & Codification ofReligious& Cultural Traditions
I.Codifications of existing religioustraditionscreate abond among thepeople& anethical code A.Judaismdeveloped 1.Influenced byMesopotamian culture & legal traditions 2.Conquered bypolitical states led to diasporacommunities B.Sanskrit scriptures formed Hinduism(s) II.Newbeliefsystemsemerged & spread,oftenasserting universal truths. A.Buddhism B.Confucianism C.Daoism D.Christianity
E.Greco-Roman philosophy & science III.Belief systems affected genderroles IV.Other religious/traditions continued parallel to written beliefsystems. A.Shamanism& animism B.Ancestorveneration
V.Artistic expressions,including literature& drama,architecture,& sculpture.
A.Literature & drama B.Indian,Greek,Mesoamerican,& Roman architectural styles. C.Greco-Roman sculpture,syncretismw/ Buddhism
Key Concept 2.2The Development ofStates& Empires I.Imperial societiesgrewdramatically. A.Persian Empires B.Qin & Han dynasties
D.Phoenician & Greek colonies/colonization,Hellenistic & Roman Empires E.Teotihuacan,Mayacitystates F.Moche
II.Empires& statesdeveloped new techniques of imperial administration
A.Rulers created centralized governments,elaboratelegal systems,& bureaucracies. B.Imperial governments projected military power C.Muchof thesuccess of empires rested ontheir promotionof trade & economic integration III.Uniquesocial & economic dimensionsdeveloped inimperial Societies. A.Functionof Cities 1.centers of trade 2.religious rituals
B.Social hierarchies1)cultivators;2)laborers;3)slaves;4)artisans;5)merchants;6)elites;7) castegroups. C.Methodsused to produce food,rewardsforelites. D.Patriarchy continued to shapegender & familyrelations. IV.Roman,Han,Mauryan,& Guptadeclined,collapsed,transformed into successorempiresorstates. A.Empires caused environmental damage & generated social tensions& economic difficulties. B.External problemsresulted fromthethreatof invasions
Key Concept 2.3Emergence ofTransRegional NetworksofCommunication & Exchange
I.Hemispheric trade,communication & exchange networksimpacted climate& locationof theroutes,the typical tradegoods,& theethnicityof people
A.Eurasian Silk Roads
B.Trans-Saharan caravan routes
C.Indian Ocean sealanes D.Mediterranean sealanes
II.Newtechnologiesled to long-distance communication & exchange.
A.Newtechnologiesled to domesticated pack animals,promoted longerroutes.
B.Maritime technologies,monsoon winds III.Intangible Trade Networks
A.cropsled to changesin farming & irrigation
B.Diseasesdecreased urban populations,also decreased empires(Rome& Han) C.Religious& cultural