General Information: Use your review text, other history text books, and/or reliable internet sources to complete each of the five (5) outlines over U.S. history from exploration through the Civil War. Be sure that all terms are defined and specific information is added under each topic. We will use this work in class over the first several weeks of school. All of this work should be placed in a folder and turned in by the designated date. This should be typed. You will need much more space than provided below. Adjust the spacing when you type your work.
Native Cultures & Early Exploration
Do you remember this topic from elementary or middle school? Brainstorm any information that you remember. In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue
The first people to discover the land were the nomads that traveled over the “land bridge” from Asia The Mayflower brought the first British pilgrims
The Native Americans showed the pilgrims how to grow maize
Pilgrims introduced the plague to Native American
When/where for first arrivals—
Christopher Columbus and his crew landed on the Canary Islands on October 12, 1492.
List regions of North America and the Native groups living in each—
Southeast- Cherokee,Seminole, Apalachee, Catawba
Chickasaw, Choctow, Coushatta, Creek, Houma, Lumbee, Miccoukee, Timacu
Mid Atlantic/Northeast- Piscataway, Lenape, Powhatan, Yaocamico, Algonquin, Iroquios, Narrangansett, Nipmuc, Peqet, Pokanoket, Wampanog
Great Lakes- Cippewa, Fox, Shawnee, Huron, Kickapoo, Menominee, Miami, Oneida, Onondaga, Ottowa, Potawatomi, Winnebago
Great Plains- Sioux, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche, Arapoho, Crow, Dakota, Kiowa, Mandan, Osage, Pawnee, Wichta
Califrornia/Mountains- Paiute, Shoshone, Cahuilla, Chemihuevi, Chumash, Costanoan, Diegueno, Hupa, Luiseno, Maidu, Pomo, Ute
Pacific Northwest- Spokane, Aleut, Athabascan, Chinook, Colville, Coos, Nez Perce, Puget Sound Salish, Quileute, Quinault, Tlihgit, Tulalip
Southwest- Navajo, Apache, Pueblo, Hopi, Keres, Maricopa, Mojave, Tohono O’odham, Pima, Yaqui,Yuma, Zuni
Columbus & the Columbian exchange-
The Columbian Exchange refers to the transcontinental movement of animals, foods, plants, and diseases after 1492.
II.Age of Exploration (1420 – 1620)
What developments/changes BEFORE this time that had an impact on exploration?
Political—the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power
Technological— compass, astrolabe, cross staff, hour glass, the Spanish galleon
Religious— the Protestant Reformation as a result of The Renaissance
Military— The change in the way people payed for wars and the sudden need for a strong military was western Europe’s response to the challenges of warfare in the new age of gunpowder weapons
Economic—The rise of capitalism created a largely urban middle class committed to expanding markets. As more people looked to buy products and goods, national and international trade interests grew .
Nations/ Their explorer(s)/Major Reasons& Motives for
Portugal—& Treaty of Tordesillas
Ferdinand Magellan- first voyage around the world
Christopher Columbus- discovered the New World; landed in Bahamas on first voyage Bartholomeu Dias- lead voyage around Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of South Africa) Pedro Alvarez Cabral- first European to see Brazil
The Treaty of Tordesillas was created to settle disputes between Spain and Portugal over land discovered by Columbus. Motives:
Wealth – gold, silver and spices
Increasing opportunities for Portuguese trade
Spreading the Catholic Religion
Christopher Columbus- financed by Spain and claimed much of the New World in the name of Spain Vasco Nunez de Balboa- crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain Juan Diaz de Solis- landed in Uruguay
Hernan Cortes- founds Veracruz in Mexico
Increasing opportunities for Spanish trade
Spreading the Catholic religion
Building a Spanish Empire
Jaques Cartier- landed in Newfoundland
Samuel de Champlain- established Port Royal in present day Nova Scotia, founded Quebec Sieur de Bienville- founded New Orleans
Expand French Empire
To capture and sell American animals furs in France
Sir Frances Drake- circumnavigates the world
Sir Walter Raleigh- The Discovery of Guiana and establishing the Virginia colony of Roanoke Island Sir Humphrey Gilbert- established St. Johns, Newfoundland
Competition with Spain and France
C. Other European powers exploring the New World/Areas Claimed/Goals of Colonies
Dutch- Henry Hudson was an Englishman who was sent by the Dutch; he landed in Labrador and headed south, down the coast. Colonized New Netherlands and New Amsterdam
II.English Colonization in North America
1 Motives of English immigrants:
escape religious prosecution economic (business investments overseas) place to work for unemployed more political freedom
2 Types of Colonial organization
Royal- owned by the King
Proprietary- land grants from British Government to colonists Self-governing- set up ongovernment seperate of the crown (King at any time could revoke privillage and declare the colony a Royal Colony)
Thirteen English Colonies (complete chart in detail) Be able to compare/contrast.
The Thirteen English Colonies
|Region |Date of Founding|Founder or People associated with Early History of Colony |Environment, Economy, and Labor of the Region;| | | |Notes on the Early History of the Colony: Why it was founded, |the role of religion in these colonies | | | |significant characteristics, terms, and/or laws | | |New England | |Plymouth and |Plymouth – 1620 |101 colonists left England to head for the Virginia Colony in 1620. |It was very cold in the New England colonies, | |Massachusetts |Mass. Bay – 1630 |However, the Mayflower was blown off course and landed in |but this helped prevent the spread of deadly | | | |present-day Cape Cod and the town they established on December 21, |diseases (although it did not stop it). The | | | |1620 was named Plymouth. |harsh winters killed many. The land was | | | | |covered in hills and rocky soil. There was a | | | | |short growing season, so the natural resources| | | | |such as fish, whales, trees, and fur became | | | | |the most reliable sources for survival. The | | | | |towns were to support the religion of the | | | |
|Puritans, who did not tolerate other religious| | | | |views. | |Connecticut |1636 |John Winthrop, Thomas Dudley, and other non-separatist Puritans | | | | |founded the colony. The first Governor, John Endecott, was a staunch| | | | |Puritan who percecuted anyone with opposing views. | | |Rhode Island |1636 |Roger Williams was a Protestant minister who sought separation from | | | | |the Church of England. Eventually he was tried in Salem and banished| | | | |for his views. He purchased land from the Narragansett Indians and | | | | |founded Providence, Rhode Island. | | |New Hampshire |1623 |In 1623, under the authority of an English land-grant, Captain John | | | | |Mason sent David Thomson, a Scotsman, and Edward and Thomas Hilton, | | | | |fish-merchants of London, with a number of other people in two | | | | |divisions to establish a fishing colony in what is now New | | | | |Hampshire, at the mouth of the Piscataqua River | | |Middle Colonies | |New York |1625 |Originally called New Netherlands, was so named in honor of the Duke|These colonies are politically, socially, and| | | |of York to whom the territory was granted on its conquest from its |economically diverse. The rich land in | | | |first settlers, the Dutch
who came for trade and furs. |Pennsylvania and the easy access to the ports | | | | |are the reason the Middle Colonies are | | | | |agricultural and industrial. This region | | | | |experienced the most religious pluralism. | |New Jersey |1664 |New Jersey was sold by the Duke of York to George Carteret and Lord | | | | |Berkley. It was colonized majorly for farming and trade. | | |Pennsylvania |1681 |The King granted the land to William Penn, who set sail from England| | | | |August of 1682 with Captain Greenway and the soon-to-be colonists, | | | | |who were mostly Quakers. | | |Delaware |1638 |Peter Minuit was Dutch and formed New Sweden as part of New | | | | |Netherland. When Charles II, King of England gave his brother James,| | | | |the Duke of York, New Netherland, James demanded and received its | | | | |surrender. He renamed New Sweden to Delaware | | |Southern Colonies | |Maryland |1632 |The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, the |The founders of these colonies came for the | | | |queen consort of Charles I. It was founded by Lord Baltimore, |sole purpose of making money. The area is | | | |because he had attempted to settle in Virginia and was rejected for |almost entirely agricultural, so there was a | | | |being a Catholic.
|high need for slaves due to the increasing | | | | |demand for labor. The most common religion was| | | | |Anglican. | | Jamestown and Virginia |1607 |Virginia was founded by John Smith, who is remembered for his role | | | | |of establishing the first permanent English settlement in America, | | | | |Jamestown. This was the first successful English colony, which did | | | | |very well. With all of it’s exports and imports, it was able to | | | | |sustain itself very easily | | | | | | | |North Carolina |Carolinas – 1663 |The Carolinas were settled by proprietors, who were successful due | | | |NC – 1712 |to the rich soil for farming and the available wildlife for fur | | | | |trading. | | |South Carolina |Carolinas – 1663 |The Carolinas eventually split into the modern day North and South | | | |SC – 1712 |Carolinas because of general cultural differences. | | |Georgia |1732 |James Oglethorpe was a British general from London, who joined the | | | | |army when he was 18, in 1714. After he had become successful in the | | | | |army, he was assigned to establish a new colony, Georgia, in 1732. | | | | |This
was the last English colony to be founded in America. | | | | | | |
General Social/Cultural Information
Problems of early settlement – Jamestown, Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay: Jamestown-
difficult to produce harvest in the virginian soil
spent all of their time looking for gold when they should have been preparing for survival had disputes with natives over land
the settlers arrived at the very beginning of winter
there was such a severity of food shortage that people resorted to cannibalism. Massachusetts Bay-
most succumbed to disease or starvation
Religion – ideas, important people and events:
The colonies were mostly that of Puritans, Quakers, and Anglicans.
If a man was absent from church, he would not be given his provisions for the week. For multiple offenses he could be whipped, or even hanged. Major cities:
Philadelphia, New Amsterdam (changed to New York in 1674), Albany, Boston, Newport, Jamestown, Williamsburg, Annapolis, Charleston, Savannah, Providence, Baltimore, and Alexandria Labor:
Law/politics/major steps toward democracy:
Economic issues/relations with Britain: (define mercantilism) Problems
a.Health: people often died of starvation or malnourishment. Disease also spread rapidly in the colonies. b.Cities: settlers had to develop their own form of government that was acceptable to the people of the colony. Indians (New England Indian Wars of 17th century):
Both the Europeans and the Native Americans had a sense of superiority over each other. This of course resulted in many disputes over things such as land. The New England Indian Wars of the 17th century include the French and Indian War of 1688-1763. These battles were a struggle for land and power, and resulted in the near-death of the indigenous tribes of eastern North America. Rebellions against authority: (Bacon’s, Leisler’s, Paxton Boys, Regulators, Pope’s) Bacon: In the New England Indian Wars of the 17th century, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr. rebelled against the authority of Governor of Virginia Sir William Berkley. After Bacon began his own group of volunteer Indian fighters and raiding a couple Indian camps, he was taken by Berkley’s men and made to appologize to Berkley and the council for his actions. After immediately being pardonned, Bacon demanded to be named a General in the forces against the “hostile natives”. Reluctantly, Berkley gave in. The Enlightenment/Great Awakening:
French and Indian War/Seven Years War (1754 – 1763)—For any war that we study, you should gather the following information. This will NOT be repeated on each outline.
Major cause(s) (incl. “spark”):
The French and Indian War resulted from ongoing frontier tensions in North America as both French and British imperial officials and colonists sought to extend each country’s sphere of influence in frontier regions.
Major people/heroes (and what they did):
William Johnson- He was one of the most successful negotiators with the Native Americans. Later he would lead the British to victory in the Battle of Lake George in 1755.
William Pitt- Pitt assumed leadership of the British ministry in December 1756. His aggressive new policies for the war were a crucial part of turning the tide in Britain’s favor in the latter half of the war.
James Wolfe- Major British general who led the British to victory in the Battle of Quebec.
Major events (incl. turning point & concluding battles):
May 28, 1754 George Washington lead a successful surprise attack on the French. His troops retreat and establish Fort Necessity. July 3, 1754 The French take Fort Necessity
June 17, 1755 The British seize Acadia
May 8, 1756 Britain declares war on France
August 8, 1757 The commander-in-chief of the French forces, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm takes Fort William Henry. The infamous massacre occurs. The turning point began when William Pitt took over wartime operations
Advantages/disadvantages of each side:
France had the support of most of the Native American tribes. New France’s government was more uniform, and was able to communicate to different areas more efficiently. While the colonies were more separate and had issues with communication, their navy was much stronger and had a population 15 times that of New France, so it was easier for the British to defend attack.
The French kept most of their forces in Europe, hoping a victory closer to home would be more beneficial. They sent barely any troops or supplies to their colonies.
The British were almost always able to effectively blockade ports and prevent the trade and distribution of French trade and supplies.
In The French and Indian War there were 13,000 casualties and 40 million Pounds were spent.
G. Results (treaties, land changes, PERMITS):
The French and Indian War resulted in The Treaty of Paris.