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Ap Language Review Essay

Chapter 1 Review Questions
1. What is invention in rhetoric?
Invention in rhetoric is the process of coming up with ideas for speaking or writing. It has three appeals, ethos, logos, and pathos.

2. What is ethos?
Ethos is an appeal based on the character of the speaker or writer.

3. What is logos?
Logos consists of the content of the argument. It also appeals to the intellect.

4. What is pathos?
Pathos appeals to the emotions of the audience.

5. How does ethos, logos, and pathos work together to persuade an audience? All three come together to persuade and audience because they appeal to the heart and the mind. People don’t make decisions with just one or the other, so this creates maximum persuasive effect. These proofs are tools for analyzing and creating effective arguments.

6. What is syllogism?
Syllogism is a chain of reasoning moving from general, universal principles to specific instances.

7. What is an enthymeme?
An enthymeme is a shortened syllogism. It serves the purpose of a more practical and beneficial way to argue.

8. How do you derive an enthymeme from a syllogism?
To derive an enthymeme from a syllogism is to take out the universal principal and create a more practical argument. It’s basically to summarize the syllogism to the key point.

9. Why is an enthymeme more useful than a syllogism in analyzing and constructing an argument? An enthymeme is more useful than a syllogism in analyzing and constructing arguments because an enthymeme is used in real-world argumentation. Whereas, a syllogism is used primarily in a logic course. Enthymemes, being a shortened version of a syllogism, uses an unstated principal that you can understand without it being said. Later in the argument you can address the unstated principal to support your enthymeme.

10. What is an arrangement, and why is it important in analyzing and constructing arguments? An arrangement is the order of how you present your ideas. It is important in analyzing and constructing arguments because you can’t just speak/write about something without knowing what you’re going to say. The arrangement collects your ideas and lets you put it in order. It allows you to form the best possible argument.

11. What is style?
Style is choosing how to express your ideas. Contributes to the writer’s content, message, or emotional appeal.

12. What effect does style have in communicating an argument to an audience? The way the writer communicates is through their style. It appeals to the audiences emotions, it can make the message more artistic and memorable.

1. Invention in rhetoric is the process of coming up with ideas for speaking and writing, kinda like brainstorming. 2. Ethos is one of the three appeals. It is based on the character or credibility of the speaker and or writer. It’s all about making the audience trust and believe in you in a sense. You want them to feel connected to you, that they have your trust and understanding. 3. Logos is another one of the three appeals. This appeal is the content of the written or spoken message. In this appeal it’s all about reducing the problem ethically. Making the problems that they have more understandable and more logical. 4. Pathos is the last of the three appeals.

Pathos is the emotional appeal to the audience by the speaker and or writer. Speakers know that people will follow their hearts more than there mind so they try to connect with them on an emotional level. Trying to speak with passion, and emotion so people can feel the pain and understand. 5. The three proofs work together in a balance to help persuade an audience, because people use their hearts and their minds when making decisions. So when all the appeals are used together in a balance it creates a very effective argument. 6. Syllogism is a chain of reasoning. Moving from general, common principles to specific events. It’s about responding to minor things, then addressing more major premises. 7. An enthymemes is a shortened syllogism. It’s a more practical way to argue. Enthymemes are taking the common known facts out of an argument, but an argument could crumble if the audience doesn’t know or understand the fact you took out of your argument. 8. You make an enthymeme from a syllogism by taking out the universal principle. Like: Fish have gills.

A tuna has gills.
In conclusion a tuna is a fish.
It’s a common thing to know that fish have gills, so you could leave that out of an argument when stating that a tuna is a fish. 9. An enthymeme is more useful and practical in analyzing and constructing an argument because when you analyze an argument you often look for the unstated principle that supports the enthymemes. So when constructing an argument you need to grasp the audience and make sure they have acceptance of the unstated principle. 10. Arrangement is when you know what you are going to say but you need to figure out what order you are going to put it in. It is important in analyzing and arranging arguments because if you compose an amazing argument it needs to have everything in the right arrangement or the audience and will fail to grasp your idea, without the best possible argument. 11. Style is the way you express your ideas.

Every writer has a different writing style. Style can change the feel of an argument. Your style can chnage alot, the character, the view point, the content, the memories, and enhance ethos. Think of a writting stlye the way you’d think of a person’s personal fashion stlye. Everyones is different, some similar but never one hundred percent the same. All of them have a different impact. 12. Style has an effect on communicating an argument to an audience that only that one speaker can do. You could have three different speakers with the same argument topic and all three speakers would graspe the audience in different ways. All from the style that they use.

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