1.Look up ANSI and ISO. Explain briefly what each is and does? ANSI-Acronym for the American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI is a voluntary organization composed of over 1,300 members (including all the large computer companies) that creates standards for the computer industry. For example, ANSI C is a version of the C language that has been approved by the ANSI committee. To a large degree, all ANSI C compilers, regardless of which company produces them, should behave similarly. In addition to programming languages, ANSI sets standards for a wide range of technical areas, from electrical specifications to communications protocols. For example, FDDI, the main set of protocols for sending data over fiber optic cables, is an ANSI standard. ISO- founded in 1947, is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, with one standards body representing each member country.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), for example, represents the United States. Member organizations collaborate in the development and promotion of international standards. Among the standards the ISO fosters is Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), a universal reference model for communication protocols. According to ISO, “ISO” is not an abbreviation. It is a word, derived from the Greek isos, meaning “equal”, which is the root for the prefix “iso-” that occurs in a host of terms, such as “isometric” (of equal measure or dimensions) and “isonomy” (equality of laws, or of people before the law). The name ISO is used around the world to denote the organization, thus avoiding the assortment of abbreviations that would result from the translation of “International Organization for Standardization” into the different national languages of members.
Whatever the country, the short form of the organization’s name is always ISO. 2.What is the most recent ANSI standard, and what does it add to the previous SQL standards? Oracle strives to comply with industry-accepted standards and participates actively in SQL standards committees. Industry-accepted committees are the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is affiliated with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Both ANSI and the ISO/IEC have accepted SQL as the standard language for relational databases. When a new SQL standard is simultaneously published by these organizations, the names of the standards conform to conventions used by the organization, but the standards are technically identical.
The latest SQL standard was adopted in July 2003 and is often called SQL:2003. One part of the SQL standard, Part 14, SQL/XML (ISO/IEC 9075-14) was revised in 2006 and is often referenced as “SQL/XML:2006”. The formal names of this standard, with the exception of SQL/XML, are:
ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075:2003, “Database Language SQL”, Parts 1 (“SQL/Framework”), 2 (“SQL/Foundation”), 3 (“SQL/CLI”), 4 (“SQL/PSM”), 9 (“SQL/MED”), 10 (“SQL/OLB”), 11(“SQL/Schemata”), and 13 (“SQL/JRT”)
ISO/IEC 9075:2003, “Database Language SQL”, Parts 1 (“SQL/Framework”), 2 (“SQL/Foundation”), 3 (“SQL/CLI”), 4 (“SQL/PSM”), 9 (“SQL/MED”), 10 (“SQL/OLB”), 11(“SQL/Schemata”), and 13 (“SQL/JRT”) http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/definition/ISO