A book that is based on a fable usually contains characters that act and talk like human beings while retaining their human traits. George Orwell wrote a book that was called ‘animal farm: a fairy story’ and was most likely based on the Russian Revolution which occurred during 1917 to 1945. There are many reasons to which why George Orwell would have used a fable in his condemnation of Soviet communism and totalitarianism.
George Orwell used talking animals to show their interaction of these animals to help link things about humans that he can link to animals in the world. George Orwell’s book contained many animals which seemed to be imprisoned on a farm by their owner Mr. Jones, it is recognised by many people that this symbolised the Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule. The pigs seemed to represent the leaders because they made all the decisions that involved the animals and the farm. The rest of the animals seemed to be the citizens that lived on the farm and were controlled by Mr. Jones then the pigs. The battle at cow shed represented the civil war which ravaged Russia until1920. The battle of the windmill is linked to the German invasion of Russia during World War II.
Throughout time, many animals have gained a reputation for their unique actions or even physical looks. These animals have been used to insult or describe someone or what they were doing. When George Orwell wrote this book, he was able to choose particular animals as particular characters to help forebode that character’s particular characteristics and their role in the story. Orwell would have had the animals in the story chosen to help link intelligent human characteristics with dirty farm animals. Orwell is able to use animals to link them to behaviours of humans and even end the book by saying that it is difficult to tell the difference.
When George Orwell wrote this book, it would have been clear to him that the topic he was writing about was very controversial and would have angered or annoyed many people in powerful or influential positions that could do some harm to him or his career as a writer by making an influential comment or action. By writing a fable, he is able to protect himself from the criticism or denigration he might receive from those that believe they are being slandered. Orwell was able to write the book to create an unspoken link with his work and the events that are happening around them that the readers are able to connect without the author making a direct connection. This would have been a very good reason for Orwell to write the book in the way he did.
As George Orwell wrote the book, he would have wanted his work to be remembered or recognised for as long as possible. By writing in a fable, his message can be referred to in any situation or any point in time because he has not made any specific references to a specific event. By having his message written in such a way he can now have it spread because the message is universal.
By writing the book as a fable, Orwell was able to write his story without having to explain what and why things were really happening because the story was most likely based on politics which can be very difficult to understand. Orwell was able to create reasons to which why things were happening and still have it linked to the complicated topic of politics. Many more readers of the book would have found it much easier to read and understand because Orwell explained it all in a new way without having to complicate it with other topics. Having a wider audience for his book would have helped him spread his thoughts and message with more people reading his book.
Based on your understanding of the Russian Revolution, do the characters and events in Animal Farm take on any new significance?When George Orwell wrote this book, he might have wanted his message to be universal though it is quite clear to many readers that he based the story and the many characters on the environment he was living in and the people he knew much more about.
The farm itself would have represented Russia as a country and the farm’s transformations would have represented the government changes which Russia undertook during the time which the book was written. The farms surrounding and interacting with Animal Farm would have symbolized the other countries in the world which related with the country during that time which tremendous change was happening in Russia.
Farmer Jones is easily linked to Czar Nicholas II because Nicholas was the leader or Russia and Jones was the owner of the farm which represented Russia. Both leaders were beginning to be questioned and hated by their followers and soon lost what they had control of. Jones came back with other farmers to come and attempt to regain control of the farm though was met with all of the animals who did not allow Jones to come out of the battle victorious with some animals rising from the group and inspiring them to fight harder. Nicholas also came back with help from other countries to help him regain control of the country which he once controlled.
The animals of the farm obviously represent everyone and everything that was under the control of Mr. Jones. In reality, this would represent all the citizens and working class who were struggling in those times which were many in numbers.
Karl Marx and Old Major have an obvious similarity because Karl Marx was one of the first to proclaim his vision of a better country and Old Major was the pig who tells all of the animals on the farm of the dream he had that had resurrected an idea and thought which he had forgotten long ago but was able to remember and then pass those ideas onto the other animals. Both Marx and Old Major died before the revolution had come.
Old Major spread his message of the vision that he had by teaching a song which he heard as a little pig called the ‘Beasts of England’. This ideology of communism was very popular with the animals and even got them excited where the ideas of communism began to spread throughout the world. A real song was also written by the followers of communism which was called ‘Communist Internationale’.
Napoleon seems to be an obvious metaphor for Stalin who was able to become the new leader after Jones had been defeated. Stalin also became the new leader after the rebellion was able to take over. Both Napoleon and Stalin seemed to have the best interest of the country or the farm though both seemed to give into the evil temptations which arose while they were in those positions. Napoleon began to slowly become greedier for more power which then began to influence his actions such as training the puppies not to read but to train them to become his personal protectors and even attackers. Napoleon soon begins to shower himself with more luxury and fort such as sleeping in a bed and even drinking alcohol. Stalin was also overwhelmed with new found luxury and power and soon let the peasants whom he was meant to help suffer.
Snowball seems to be the symmetry of Leo Trotsky. Snowball was a pig that had the same interests of the farm as Napoleon in mind though it is how they each approached their ideas which got them into fights. Snowball was always disagreeing with Napoleon’s ideas and it was soon that Napoleon’s physical way of forcing his thoughts onto others that conquered over Snowball’s less taunting approach. Trotsky was soon seen as a traitor by the country and left as Snowball did when he was forced out by Napoleon.
Squealer seems to represent the media in those times who attempted to influence everyone’s thoughts as to what they thought about why Napoleon did such acts as the media did with Stalin. Squealer becomes the only link to Napoleon to the rest of the animals on the farm and was the persuader and influential speaker who was able to hide or conceal the true intentions of the pigs. The media in those times were able to influence so well because the working class in those times were quite uneducated and needed something to think for then and it was that source of media that they depended on.
Boxer is quite clearly the metaphor for the working class in those times. Boxer was a very hard working animal on the farm that made great efforts throughout his life and always had a simple motto to help him work even harder. The uneducated workers in those times were easily influenced by Stalin because it seemed as though they would prosper most in the new system as did Boxer. Boxer was a very dedicated follower of Stalin who was later on betrayed by being sent to the glue factory.
Mollie is the representation of the middle class workers who are educated and understand the true effects under the new government which was being
presented. Mollie would wear a ribbon and lick sugar when Jones was in charge of the farm though as the animals took over, Mollie was not aloud to wear ribbons or lick sugar for she had to make sacrifices. In reality, the middle class did not like the new system for they would be lowered to everyone else’s level. Mollie then leaves the farm after being caught being patted by another farmer and lives as she did when Jones was in charge.
The puppies which were taken away from their mother by Napoleon became the bodyguards or defenders of Napoleon. These dogs that Napoleon trained to help keep his strong grip on the country attack Snowball and force him out of the farm which leaves no significant challengers for Napoleon to face. These dogs also attacked anyone that opposed or betrayed Napoleon in anyway. This easily represents the police or army which Stalin had control of when he took over as the leader of Russia.
The windmill seems to represent the economy of Russia in those harsh times. The animals worked hard together to build the windmill even though there was a shortage of food and it was promised that this would help them significantly. This was just like in reality where Stalin had a five year plan to help Russia and just like the windmills, they failed to succeed.
The book is easily linked to many things around Orwell as he wrote the book. Even though the message of Orwell was attempted to be made universal it is most likely connected to the significant Russian revolution.