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Animal Cells: Structures and Organelles Essay

The following are examples of structures and organelles that can be found in typical animal cells:

* Centrioles – organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division.

* Cytoplasm – gel-like substance within the cell.

* Endoplasmic Reticulum – extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER).

* Golgi Complex – responsible for manufacturing, storing and shipping certain cellular products.

* Lysosomes – sacs of enzymes that digest cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids.

* Microtubules – hollow rods that function primarily to help support and shape the cell.

* Mitochondria – power producers and the sites of cellular respiration.

* Nucleus – membrane bound structure that contains the cell’s hereditary information. * Nucleolus – structure within the nucleus that helps in the synthesis of ribosomes.

* Nucleopore – tiny hole within the nuclear membrane that allows nucleic acids and proteins to move into and out of the nucleus. * Ribosomes – consisting of RNA and proteins, ribosomes are responsible for protein assembly.

Plant Cell: Structures and Organelles The following are examples of structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells:

* Cell (Plasma) Membrane – a thin, semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.

* Cell Wall – outer covering of the cell that protects the plant cell and gives it shape.

* Chloroplasts – the sites of photosynthesis in a plant cell. They contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight.

* Cytoplasm – gel-like substance within the cell membrane containing water, enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules.

* Cytoskeleton – a network of fibers throughout the cytoplasm that helps the cell maintain its shape and gives support to the cell.

* Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER).

* Golgi Complex – responsible for manufacturing, storing and shipping certain cellular products.

* Microtubules – hollow rods that function primarily to help support and shape the cell.

* Mitochondria – this organelle generates energy for the cell.

* Nucleus – membrane bound structure that contains the cell’s hereditary information. * Nucleolus – structure within the nucleus that helps in the synthesis of ribosomes.

* Nucleopore – tiny hole within the nuclear membrane that allows nucleic acids and proteinsto move into and out of the nucleus. * Peroxisomes – tiny structures bound by a single membrane that contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. These structures are involved in plant processes such as photorespiration.

* Plasmodesmata – pores or channels between plant cell walls that allow molecules and communication signals to pass between individual plant cells.

* Ribosomes – consisting of RNA and proteins, ribosomes are responsible for protein assembly.

* Vacuole – structure in a plant cell that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, detoxification, protection, and growth. When a plant cell matures, it typically contains one large liquid-filled vacuole.


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