Flows into the thoracic duct: Right leg, abdomen, left side of head, left side of neck, left arm, left leg, left thoracic cavity Flows into the right lymphatic duct: right arm, Right side of head, Right side of neck, Right Thoracic cavity In a typical capillary bed, the balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures results in FILTRATION occurring at the arterial end of the capillaries and REABSORPTION occurring at the venous end. Overall, FILTRATION from the plasma normally exceeds REABSORPTION resulting in the net formation of tissue fluid. Lymph drainage is important for the – absorption of dietary fats, return of small proteins from tissue fluid to blood, transport of foreign particles form tissue fluid to lymph nodes.
The function of lymph nodes includes: filter lymph, immune surveillance Classify each item as a feature of innate defenses or adaptive defenses: Adaptive Defenses- T and B lymphocytes, Antibodies produced, Antigen-presenting cells, Response to antigen Innate Defenses- Barriers, Natural Killer Cells Involved, Mononuclear Phagocytic system, Fever, Interferons Chemical Barriers:
Antimicrobial substances that put holes in pathogen membranes: Defensins Released by virally-infected cells; protects nearby uninfected cells: Interferons Group of proteins that, when activated, stimulate inflammation and phagocytosis: Complement Antimicrobial substances; bind to sugar groups on pathogen; enhances phagocytosis: Colllectins Antibodies-
IgG antibodies are found in the body fluids and are the smallest but most abundant of the antibodies. It activates the complement system IgA antibodies are found in the exocrine gland secretions, such as within the nose, breathing passages, digestive tract, ears, eyes and vagina. It defends against bacteria and viruses. IgM antibodies are the first type of antibody produced in response to an infection. It activates the complement system. IgD antibodies are found as surface receptors on most B-cells. IgE antibodies are found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes. This type of antibody is involved in allergies. T cell activation in correct order:
Macrophage engulfs bacterium
Macrophage digests bacterium
Bacterial antigens are inserted into cell membrane of macrophage along with MHC protein T cell binds to display antigen/MHC on macrophage
T cell is activated
An activated B cell proliferates, giving rise to a clone of B cells. Of these cells, some become ______ and some become _____.
Immunity acquired with the injection of antibodies from another source is called ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE immunity. Immunity resulting when one’s own immune system responds to an antigen encountered through normal routes is called NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE immunity. Immunity in a newborn due to the passing of maternal antibodies through the placenta is called NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE immunity Immunity that occurs following vaccination with an antigen is called ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE immunity.
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