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Anatomy and physiology Essay

P4- Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body. Energy is the strength and ability that is required in order to perform physical or mental activities. There are different forms of energy these consist of: magnetic, kinetic, heat, light, gravitational, chemical, sound, electrical, elastic and nuclear. The law, conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy within a system remains constant at all times, although energy within the system can be changed from one form to another. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transformed. The law of conservation of energy states that when energy is being used, it’s not being used up instead it’s being transformed from one form into another.

Most of our energy comes from the fats, carbohydrates and protein in the food we eat. Having energy is important because it supports the functions within the body, this is because an individual needs energy in order to make blood circulate, it’s needed to help breathing and make new cells. Basal metabolic rate is the estimate of how many calories you’d burn if you did nothing for twenty four hours. It represents the minimum amount of energy needed to keep the body functioning including breathing and keeping the heart beating. Metabolism is all of the chemical and hormonal reactions that take place within the body that keeps the organs and cells working.

Metabolism helps us maintain life. Anabolism is about storing and building. Anabolism supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. During anabolism small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Catabolism is the process that produces the energy that is needed in order to have activity in the cells. In order for this to happen cells breakdown large molecules such as carbohydrates and fats to release energy. The energy created provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move. As complex chemical units are broken down into more simple substances, the waste products released in the process of catabolism are removed from the body through the lungs, and intestines.

The respiratory system

The primary function of the respiratory system is to get a supply of oxygen to the blood resulting in oxygen being delivered to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this while breathing is taking place. During the process of breathing we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Respiration begins at the nose or mouth. When the air enters the nose it is filtered by the hair within the nose and is then moistened by the mucus present. However if air enters through the mouth it is not filtered as much. The nasal cavity and the mouth both meet at the pharynx at the bottom of the pharynx the pathway divides into two and the air goes through the flap of tissue that leads to the trachea. The trachea is kept open by rings of cartilage without these rings your trachea would close off and air would not be able to get to and from the lungs. The trachea is also lined with cilia which sweep fluids and particles out of the airway so they do not enter the lungs.

At its bottom end, the trachea divides into left and right air tubes called bronchi, which connect to the lungs. Within the lungs the bronchi branch into smaller bronchi and then into smaller tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Each lungs has about three hundred to four hundred million alveoli. The alveoli are sacs that fill up with oxygen when an individual breathes in. the alveoli are surrounded by tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The walls of the alveoli are very thin this is because oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through them entering or exiting the blood stream. As well as this the lungs contain elastic tissues that allow them to inflate and deflate without losing shape they are incased in a thin lining called the pleura.

The network of alveoli, bronchioles and bronchi is also known as the bronchial tree. Gas exchange is when oxygen is delivered from the lungs to the blood stream and carbon dioxide is taken out of the bloodstream and into the lungs. Gas exchange occurs within the lungs between the alveoli and capillaries which are in the walls of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide in the alveoli are exhaled out of the body. The thorax is similar to an airtight box that holds the bronchial tree, lungs, heart, and other structures. The top and sides of the thorax are formed by the ribs and attached muscles, and the bottom is formed by diaphragm which is a large muscle.

The chest walls form a protective cage around the lungs and other contents of the chest cavity. The diaphragm separates the chest and the abdomen as well as this it has a large role in breathing. The diaphragm moves down when we breathe in which expands the chest cavity making room for air to enter through the nasal cavity or mouth. When we breathe out the diaphragm moves upwards, forcing the chest cavity to reduce in size and pushing the gases in the lungs up and out of either the nose or mouth. Oxygen is required by cells to allow various metabolic reactions to take place and to produce energy which is essential to life. Respiration involves chemical activities that take place in every living cell, they need oxygen and glycogen to combine in order to release energy, water and carbon dioxide.

Haemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that enables the cells to carry oxygen, and Myoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein found in heart and skeletal muscles. Metabolism is linked to the respiratory system because it is responsible for providing the oxygen to cells around the body. Ventilation occurs when we inhale and exhale. When an individual inhales the intercostal muscles contract, expanding the ribcage. The diaphragm contracts and pulls downwards to increase the volume of the chest and the pressure inside the chest decreases and air is pushed into the lungs.

When we exhale the intercostal muscles relax, the ribcage drops downward and the diaphragm relaxes, moving upwards to decrease the volume of the chest. Finally the pressure inside the chest increases and air is pushed out of the lungs. Materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and glucose enter and leave cells by diffusion. When a cell is respiring the concentration of oxygen and glucose inside the cell is lower than the surrounding blood so these substances move into the cell. As carbon dioxide is produced the concentration inside the cell increases to a level higher than the surrounding blood, so carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell.

The cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular systems main function is to pump oxygenated blood and nutrients around the body however it also performs other important functions such as: Transportation, this system transports blood to the whole body. The blood carries essential nutrients and oxygen and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide. Hormones are transported throughout the body via the plasma. Protection the cardiovascuar system is incharge of protecting the body by sending out white blood cells. White blood cells fight pathogens that have entered the body. Platelets and red blood cells form scabs in order to stop pathogens entering through cuts by forming scabs. Blood also contain antibodies that provide imunity to certain pathogens that the body may have previously encountered. Regulation the cardiovascular system is important as it plays a part in the bodys ability to maintain homeostatic control or internal conditions.

Blood vessels help maintain a stable body temperature by controlling the blood flow to the surface to the skin. Blood vessels near the suface of the skin open when the body is overheating. If hypothermia occurs the blood vessels constrict to keep blood flowing only to vital organs in the body’s core. The cardiac cycle is a series of events that happen when the heart beats. There are two phases of the cardiac cycle. In the diastole phase the ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood. In the systole phase, the ventricles contract and pump the blood to the arteries. One cardiac cycle is complete when the heart fills with blood and the blood is pumped out of the heart. The events that take place in the two stages take place at the same time. Heart rate is the number of beats per minute. The heart beats in order to supply oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body via the aorta. Heart rate changes depending on the need for oxygen for example it goes up when you exercise but slows down when you sleep. The average human heart rate is between seventy to ninety beats per minute.

Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the left ventricle; normally only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is sent around the body with each beat. The heart rate, the stroke volume determines the output of blood by the heart beat per minute. Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, blood pressure describes the pressure (force) on the walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure varies depending on the situation an individual is in, what they are doing and if they are ill. Blood starts in the right side of the heart, the superior vena cava collects blood from the upper body and the inferior vena cava collects blood from the lower body. Blood leaves the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava enters the right atrium. When the right atrium contracts, the blood travels through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts and sends the blood is pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and into the lungs where it picks up oxygen. This happens because the returning blood is deoxygenated and needs to be full of oxygen before going to the left side of the heart where it is sent around the body.

The blood now returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins and makes its way to the left atrium. When the left atrium contracts blood goes through the bicuspid valve and into the left ventricle. The left ventricle has a thicker muscle than any other chamber because it has to pump blood to the whole body against much higher pressure. Pumps the blood through the semilunar valve and into the aorta, the aorta is the main artery of the body it receives all the blood that the heart has pumped out and distributes it to the rest of the body. In relation to energy the main function of the cardiovascular system is to transport the oxygen and glucose to the cells within the body and to get rid of waste such as carbon dioxide and urea. By providing the cells with oxygen and nutrients they are able to carry out functions that keep the body working correctly. The capillaries are where the important stages of circulation take place for example the exchange of material between circulation and cells.

Capillaries are the smallest of the body’s blood vessels they are only one cell thick, and they are the sites of the transfer of oxygen and other nutrients from the bloodstream to other tissues in the body as well as this they also collect carbon dioxide waste materials and fluids for return to the veins. A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart . Veins can be categorized into four main types: pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Systemic veins return deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body to the right atrium of the heart. Superficial veins are located close to the surface of the skin and are not located near a corresponding artery.

Deep veins are located deep within muscle tissues near a corresponding artery for example coronary arteries and coronary veins. Venules are small blood vessels that collect used blood from capillary beds and transport it to the larger veins for transport back to the heart. Venules are small in size and have narrow interior lumens, venules are structurally similar to veins, and several venules often merge together to form a vein. As well as transporting blood from capillary beds to the veins. At sites where an infection has developed, venules release white blood cells to fight the foreign cells. Arteries are blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body.

Each artery is a muscular tube lined by smooth tissue and has three layers. The largest artery is the aorta, it is the main artery that is connected to the heart’s left ventricle. The aorta branches into a network of smaller arteries that are found throughout the body. Arterioles carry blood away from the heart and out to the tissues of the body. As well as this they have other functions, arterioles are very important in blood pressure regulation. Arterioles play an important role in the body this is because they are regulated often and play a large part in a person’s blood pressure. Arterioles also respond to chemical and electrical messages and mostly changing size to speed up or slow down blood flow.

The role of energy in the body

In order to work the human body needs energy. Energy comes from the foods we eat, our three main sources of energy are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates and fats will be used mainly for energy while proteins would provide the raw materials for making things such as hormones and muscles. Once digested nutrients are absorbed in your intestine, where they are transported within the blood and sent to every cell in your body. However, some nutrients are sent to the liver before the cells are able to use them. For example, some sugars, such as fructose are converted to glucose, which is carried through your circulatory system. Also, protein fragments are changed by your liver into amino acids, which are more easily transported through the body. D1- Analyse how two body systems interrelate to perform a named function/functions

Cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system is a system which moves nutrients, gases and wastes between cells, and transports blood throughout the body. The main components of the cardiovascular system include the heart, blood, veins, arteries and capillaries. There are several different circuits contained in the cardiovascular system. One of these systems is the pulmonary circuit, which is a “loop”, in which oxygenated blood travels through the lungs. The other circuit is the systemic circuit which transports the rest of the blood in a loop through the body. In the cardiovascular system within the heart, there is the cardiac cycle, which is the flow of blood between heartbeats. The cardiovascular system is essential to the human body as it makes sure that all blood is distributed prop

erly. Respiratory system

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system completes this task through breathing. When an individual breathes, they inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system’s way of getting oxygen into the blood.

How the systems work together

The circulatory system and the respiratory system work closely together to ensure that organ tissues receive enough oxygen. Oxygen is required for cellular functions. The air breathed in and held in the lungs is transferred to the blood. The blood is circulated by the heart, which pumps the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body. Additionally, the two body systems work together to remove carbon dioxide, which is a metabolic waste product. The heart is where the two systems start to work together, the heart has two ventricles and two atriums. The right ventricle and atrium are where blood is received from the veins. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium of the heart.

When the heart muscle relaxes, the blood is released from the atrium and makes its way into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then pushes the blood through the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary artery, where the blood is delivered to the lungs in order to be oxygenated. The lungs are where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. Lungs are the main organ in the respiratory system. When an individual inhales, the alveoli in the lungs fill with oxygen. The oxygen is sent to blood cells in the capillaries that surround the alveoli. When you exhale, the carbon dioxide in the blood is sent to the alveoli, where it is released from the body. At this point, the blood is now fully oxygenated and returns to the heart.

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