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Anatomy and Physiology Essay

Define/Describe the following terms as completely and detailed as you can: 1. Inflammation- Inflammation is the bulging of skin, organs, or other body parts due to fluid buildup caused an injury. The fluid rushes to the injured area and that is what makes the puffiness. 2. High Fructose Corn Syrup- (HFCS) Composed of corn and lab chemicals. HFCS is found in processed foods such as salad dressing and soda. Your body does not recognize it as food so it shunts the HFCS to a fat cell and that is what causes weight gain. 3.

The 4 parts of the vertebral column plus 1 “special” part- The four parts of the vertebral column are made up of twenty nine vertebrae each separated by an intravertebral disc which absorbs shock to the vertebrae. The first part is called cervical vertebrae, there are seven of them, they are the smallest vertebrae and they are at the top of your neck. The first of the cervical vertebrae is called the atlas and the second is called axis and it allows your head to turn side to side. Next are the thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic vertebrae are the next twelve under your cervical vertebrae.

These vertebrae are larger and thicker than the cervical vertebrae. The next sets of vertebrae are your lumbar vertebrae which are the last five vertebrae in your lower back. Lumbar vertebrae are your biggest, strongest and thickest vertebrae. They need to be big and strong because they support the weight of your body. The sacrum is at the very end of your vertebral column. The sacrum is composed of five fused vertebrae. *Fun Fact: giraffes and humans have the same number of vertebrae.* The “special” part of your vertebral column is called the coccyx.

The coccyx is located at the very end of your vertebral column. The coccyx has no real function. 4. Bone marrow and hemoglobin- Hemoglobin plays a big role in cellular respiration and oxygen supply. Hemoglobin carries oxygen. Bone marrow is a soft, netlike mass of connective tissue that is in the medullary cavities of bones classified as long bones. The marrow is housed in the spaces of the spongy bones. Spongy bone is most abundant in the proximal and distal epiphysis’s of a long bone. There are two types of bone marrow, red and yellow.

Yellow bone marrow stores fat and red marrow functions in the formation of red and white blood cells. Red bone marrow receives its color from hemoglobin because it stores oxygen which turns blood red. 5. The 3 layers of the skin- The integumentary has three parts; the epidermis is the outer layer and it lack blood, the second layer of skin is the dermis and it carries nutrients, the third and final layer of skin is called the subcutaneous layer and it is located under the dermis. The subcutaneous layer sits right Next to fat and it the most inside layer. 6. The 3 types of muscle tissue- Muscle tissue is broken down into three layers and a covering called fascia that covers everything. The first and most outside layer it called epimysium and it surrounds the muscle as a whole.

The second layer of muscle tissue is known as the perimysium and it surrounds the bundles of muscle fibers. The final and most inner layer of muscle tissue is the endomysium and it surrounds each individual muscle fiber. 7. Type I and II muscle fibers- Smooth muscle in particular has two types of muscle fiber, multiunit and visceral. Multiunit muscle fibers are separated unlike visceral tissue that is made up of sheets and spindle shaped cells. Multiunit muscle fibers can be found in the irises of your eyeball and visceral tissue is common in hollow organ like the stomach.

Cellular Metabolism
1. Explain the function of metabolism- Metabolism builds and breaks down particles. The main function of the metabolism is to synthesize, use and store energy. 2. Compare and contrast anabolism and catabolism- anabolism is the buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones which requires energy and catabolism is the opposite it breaks down large particles to produce energy.

3. Describe how energy in the form of ATP becomes available for cellular activities- Energy in the form of ATP is used for many cellular activities. To produce ATP, ADP has to combine with a third phosphate and that creates ATP for cellular activities such as glycolysis which is the first step in cellular respiration. 4. Describe the steps of protein synthesis- Information from DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is messenger RNA, and then the mRNA is translated into a series of amino acids. The two steps are transcription and then translation.

Integumentary System
1. Describe the structure of the layers of the skin- The epidermis is the top layer that you can touch and it lacks blood. Next is the dermis, the dermis carries nutrients and contains the hair follicles, it also contain your sweat gland ducts. The most inner layer of the skin is called the subcutaneous layer, it is not a true layer of skin but it helps to conserve body heat and it helps keep out unwanted heat from the outside. 2. Summarize the factors that determine skin color- Skin color is determined largely by melanin. Everyone has approximately the same number of melanocytes but genetics determine how fast and how much melanin the melanocytes produce.

The more melanin you have the darker your skin is. 3. Describe wound healing- The wound and the area around it become swollen or inflamed due to fluid that leaked into the injured area. This is not a bad thing because it provides the area with more nutrients and oxygen which aids healing. If a break on the skin is shallow then the epithelial cells divide faster and the new cells fill the broken area. If the cut is deep into the dermis or subcutaneous layer to blood vessels form a blood clot and the dried tissue fluids help to form a scab. Cells work continuously to clear away dead cells and other remains and eventually it is all replaced with new cells under the scab and they scab will in time come off.

If the wound is deep then extensive construction of collagenous fibers may create a raised portion of skin called a scar. 4. How can a person avoid developing skin cancer during their lifetime?- In order to avoid developing skin cancer a person should avoid exposing their skin to high-intensity sunlight, use sunscreens, examine skin regularly. 5. List two examples of modified sweat glands in the body and what they secrete- The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands and apocrine glands.

Eccrine glands secrete sweat that is carries through a tube called a duct and released at the surface of a pore. (Ex: Eccrine glands release the sweat that you feel on your palms when you get nervous.) The apocrine glands, become active when you hit puberty, secrete sweat as well but they release it when a person is emotionally upset, sexually aroused, scared or in pain. Sweat develops a scent when it interacts with bacteria.

6. What two specific properties of skin allow it to regulate body temperature?- In order to regulate body temperature the skin needs to release heat as needed or conserve heat as needed. When the body becomes too hot it sends a message to your blood vessels to dilate and that allows blood to come in and heat to escape. When your body becomes too cold it sends a message to your blood vessels to constrict which does not allow heat to escape your body.

Skeletal System
1. Explain how calcium levels are maintained in the blood and bone- Homeostasis of the calcium levels in bone is controlled by resorption and deposition of calcium into the bones. Also 3-5% of calcium in bones is exchanged each year. If you have less than 3-5% you would be a midget but if you have more than 3-5% then you would be a giant. Osteoclasts break down bone and osteoblasts build bone.

2. Explain why the shoulder joint and hip joints are more mobile than the finger joints- The shoulder and hips joints are ball-and-socket joints and are more mobile than your finger joints, which are condylar joints, because ball-and-socket joints are literally a ball like shaped bone that sits in a cup shaped cavity in anther bone. The placement and shape of these bones allows for rotation and movement on all planes. Condylar joints like the fingers are like puzzles everything fits together. But just like a puzzle you can bend them it but they don’t rotate. 3. List the active tissues in a bone-

Bone tissue
Dense connective tissue
Nervous tissue
4. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons, and name the major parts of each- The axial skeleton consists of your thoracic cage which is your ribs, vertebral column, and sternum, and xiphoid process. The axial skeleton consist of your limbs(arms and legs), pectoral girdle(scapula and clavicles), and your pelvic girdle(coccyx, sacrum, ilium, ischium, pubis anterior and medial) 5. List six types of synovial joints, and describe the actions of each- Ball-and-socket- Movement in all planes and enables rotation. Condylar- Variety of movement in different planes but no rotation.
Plane- Sliding or twisting.

Hinge- Flexion or extension.
Pivot- Rotation around a central axis.
Saddle- Variety of movements, mainly in two planes.
6. List all 6 types of synovial joints and describe/explain each one. List one example for each- Ball-and-socket-Ball shaped head of a bone articulates with the cavity of another bone. (Ex: hip) Condylar-oval-shaped condyle f one bone articulates with egg-shaped cavity of another bone. (Ex: Phalanges. Excluding the thumb)

Plane-articulating surfaces are almost flat or slightly curved. (Ex: carpals)
Hinge-Convex surface of one bone articulates with a concave surface of another. (Ex: elbow)
Pivot-Cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with the ring of bone and ligament. (Ex: vertebrae)
Saddle-the surface of one bone fits the surfaces of another. (Ex: thumb)

Muscular System
1. What happens to muscles when a weight lifter becomes sedentary? – when a weight lifter becomes sedentary his muscle mass is going to begin to decrease because he isn’t using them. His muscles are just going to keep shrinking and shrinking. This happens as quickly as two weeks. 2. Describe the sliding filament theory and steps of muscular contraction- Muscle fiber releases ACh.

Protein receptors sense Ach being released.
Green light (stimulus) is received by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Signal to release Ca+. Ca+ is given to sarcoplasm.
Ca+ interacts with your tropomyosin and triponin.
Actin will “cross-bridge” (contraction)
Ca+ returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum so link is broken and muscle relaxes. 3. Describe the differences between slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers- slow twitch muscle give you the ability to do exercise for a longer period of time because they fatigue slower and are efficient in the use of oxygen to produce more fuel or ATP.

Fast twitch muscle fibers are good for fast bursts of exercise because they fatigue quickly and they can fire more rapidly than slow twitch fibers. 4. Identify the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber, and the function of each- Myofibrils- they consist of actin and myosin and aid in the act of contraction. Myosin- Thick protein

Actin- thin protein
Sarcomere- units for muscle contraction
-I bands- composed of actin
-Z lines-
5. Explain how muscular contractions move body parts and help maintain posture-Muscle tone is a form of sustained contractions, which are contractions that occur even when we appear to be standing still. They keep our body upright a.k.a. posture. These contractions are responses to nerve impulses that come from the spinal cord and stimulate the muscle fibers to move. If our body loses muscle tone then we would collapse. Which is what happens when a person is unconscious.

Nervous System
1. Describe the general functions of the brain stem- the brainstem is nervous tissue that connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord. The brainstem has three separate parts. Midbrain- reflex centers associated with the eyes and head movement. Pons- transmits impulses between the cerebrum and other parts of the nervous system. Also helps regulate breathing Medulla Oblongata- transmits all ascending (to the brain) and descending (away from the brain) impulses and contains several vital and non-vital reflex centers. 2. Why can a person still be alive even though they are “brain dead?”- You can still be alive and be brain dead it just means that your brain stem doesn’t work.

When you are brain dead its like being in a coma. You can’t move anything or understand anything but you are still there. You would live in a hospital or have 24/7 monitoring and you would be living off tubes and wires. 3. Describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord- the first layer of covering over the brain and spinal cord is dura matter.

Dura matter is the outermost layer. It made up of tough, white, fibrous connective tissue and contains many blood vessels and also nerves. The second layer is arachnoid matter. This matter is thin and does not contain many blood vessels and it lies right below the dura matter. The innermost layer and final layer is the pia matter. This matter is very thin and does contain many blood vessels and nerves to nourish underlying cells in the brain and spinal cord. 4. Name the cranial nerves and list their major functions-

Olfactory- sense of smell
Optic- vision
Oculomotor- eye movement
Trigeminal- controls facial expressions
Vestibular- controls hearing and vestibular
Glassopharengeal- controls tongue
Vagus- longest nerve in the body
Accessory- shoulders and neck movement
Hypoglossal- tongue in speaking movement, swallowing, and chewing. Trochlear- eye movement
Abducens- eye movement
Facial- facial expressions
Vestibulochlear- house hearing receptors
5. Distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system- The sympathetic division are your fight or flight responses. If you are getting cornered in an ally you a have a set of responses that you may put forward. This division acts under stressful situations. The parasympathetic division is your responses for normal situations. This division activates under normal situations.

The Senses
1. Describe how the sense of pain is produced- free nerve endings on your skin pick up stimulating from sensations of pain and send them to the brain. There are two different types, touch and pressure is contact to the surface of the body and deep pressure senses are impulses from pain in the internal tissues. 2. Explain the mechanism for smell- the olfactory nerve is the nerve in your body that controls the sense of smell. Your sense of smell is a chemoreceptor so it picks up and reacts with the chemicals that you smell.

3. Explain the mechanism for taste- Taste is also a chemoreceptor. The organs of taste are located in the papillae, which are otherwise known as your taste buds. You have 5 different taste cells, sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty. In order to taste the chemicals in food your saliva has to break down the chemicals and release them before your papillae picks up on the taste. 4. Name the parts and explain the functions of the outer, middle, and inner part of the ear-The outer ear is made up of our auricle and the external acoustic meatus. It simply picks up sound and funnels sound into the next part of the ear, which is the middle ear.

The middle ear is made up of the tympanic cavity otherwise known as the eardrum. The ear drum is made up of three auditory bones in which the vibration pass through and create the sound that is sent to the inner ear where the auditory cortex interprets the sensory impulses. 5. Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium- static equilibrium senses when the head is still and maintains balance throughout and dynamic equilibrium senses when the body and head are moving and tries to maintain balance.

Endocrine System
1. Explain how insulin and glucagon work together to regulate blood levels of glucose- Glucagon and insulin work against each other in the regulating of blood sugar. Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and convert some noncarbohydrates, for example amino acids, into glucose to raise the blood sugar. Insulin on the other hand does the exact opposite. Insulin stimulates the liver to form glycogen from glucose.

Also, the secretion of insulin encourages transport of amino acids into cells, increases the rate and time of protein synthesis, and stimulates adipose cells to synthesize and store fat. 2. Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands- the exocrine glands secret hormones into ducts and the endocrine system secretes hormones into body fluids. The Endocrine system has 5 parts, the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pancreas.

3. Name and describe the major endocrine glands and list the hormones they secrete- Pituitary- hormones: pituitary gland which is at the base of the brain and it controls all hormones, the growth hormone uses carbohydrates at a faster rate in order to make your body grow, next is the thyroid-stimulating hormone which controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid but the hypothalamus controls the release of TSH, last is the anti diaretic hormone which forces the kidneys to conserve water. Thyroid- the thyroid gland is made up of follicles that store hormones and it is located in the neck.

The thyroid gland releases Thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which increase the metabolic rate of cells, enhance protein synthesis and stimulate lipid operation. Parathyroid- secretory cells that contain capillaries. The parathyroid gland secretes the parathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium and decreases blood phosphate ion levels. Adrenal- made up of the adrenal medulla, which secretes epinephrine and nonrepinephrine. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system controls the secretion of these hormones. The adrenal cortex also makes up the adrenal gland and it produces a number of steroid hormones such as aldosterone, and cortisol, and adrenal sex hormones.

Pancreas- the pancreas secretes digestive juices and hormones. The pancreas is attached to the small intestine and it secretes glucagon and insulin. (See number 1) 4. Describe how the body responds to stress- Stress is caused by a threat to the maintenance of homeostasis. The hypothalamus controls the stress responses. These responses include your fight or flight responses such as raise in blood sugar, glycerol and fatty acids. Increased heart rate, blood pressure and an increase in the breathing rate, increase in epinephrine from the adrenal medulla (See answer 3).

Digestive System and Nutrition
1. Identify each of the organs/structures of the digestive system and discuss how the function of each one contributes to the digestive process- Mouth- aids in the mechanical break down of food. This process begins digestion. Salivary glands- release an enzyme called saliva which begins the chemical digestion of food and produces the taste also. Pharynx- pushes food to the esophagus.

Esophagus- pushes food the stomach
Stomach- when the stomach receives the food from the esophagus it mixes it with juices and begins the protein digestion then to is sent to the small intestine. Small intestine- takes out the nutrients from the food and moves the waste to the large intestine. Large intestine- reabsorbs water to form

2. Name and describe the many negative health effects and diseases associated with corn syrup/high fructose corn syrup consumption- Obesity- excessive weight gain is a result of the increase in consumption of HFCS. Your body cannot recognize HFCS as a food so it shunts it to a fat cell and you eat more because you don’t know your full. Liver- fructose can only break down in liver so it makes your liver fatty which can lead to diabetes Diabetes- high or low blood sugar in this case high because you consume so much FAKE sugar that your body secretes it into your blood because it doesn’t know what else to do with it.

3. In class, I used ketchup and processed-peanut butters as an example that not many people know contain corn syrup and high fructose corn sugar (among other sugars). List 4 products that contain corn syrup/high fructose corn syrup that would ‘trick’ a consumer- Bread

Barbecue sauce
Good (supposedly) cereals even ‘Special K’

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