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An Important Macro-Environmental Force in Vietnam Essay

QUESTION 1:

An important macro-environmental force on companies is the social/cultural environment, particularly in international markets. Imagine that you are to offer a seminar on the social/cultural environment of Vietnam to foreign businessmen and marketers. Discuss at least three elements of the cultural environment that foreign businessmen should be aware of when doing business in Vietnam. Use specific examples referring to real-life businesses, brands, marketing activities, etc. to support your discussion.

Social/cultural forces are the most difficult uncontrollable variables to predict. It is important for marketers to understand and appreciate the cultural values of the environment in which they operate. The cultural environment is made up of forces that affect society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. The Vietnamese value system is based on four basic tenets: allegiance to the family, yearning for a good name, love of learning, and respect for other people. These tenets are closely interrelated and based on three main religions which are Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity. Changes in social/cultural environment affect customer behavior, which affects sales of products. Trends in the cultural environment include individuals changing their views of themselves, others, and the world around them and movement toward self-fulfillment, immediate gratification, and secularism.

Firstly, in term of role of people in business environment, the women are not expected to reach high position. This is due to influence of Confucianism, which teach people that a woman should devote all her life to take care of household more than going out to seek foods. The woman is rarely appointed to the first position in a company because man who is lower position usually tends to against the commands coming from a woman. In contrast, a man is expected to become boss who should show his knowledge, learning and power.

Secondly, Sex is very sensitive issue so that you should avoid it as much as possible. From an advertisement to a uniform should not be more provocative and especially avoid using obscene words in public conversation. The more you are polite the more you have respect from the others. Furthermore, rewards and slogans are a part of business. In Viet Nam one of the tenets is earning for good name, so people tend to work hard for reaching some rewards or reputation. It seems that Viet Nam is one of countries, which has the most slogans. People usually act upon “syndrome crowd” but not patient, so it is better to change your company’s slogan frequently in order to collect and motivate workers following that slogan or the company’s goals.

Finally, there are some rules out of laws you should know before starting business in Viet Nam. In some case, you are clearly right, yet someone who holds right making decision say that it is wrong, you can do no things except use some tricks to pass. “Chạy” means “Run”, which uses negatively money covered in the names called gifts, is the most popular way to succeed in document procedures or get some competitive advantages.

QUESTION 2:

Consider the five stages in the adoption process of a new product, and refer to a major purchase you have made. Identify, describe and discuss each step of that process, using your own case to support your discussion. Be sure to be specific and provide as detailed a description of your adoption process, as possible. You should also discuss the different influences and forces that impacted your purchasing decision.

This MBA course is the most major purchase that I have ever bought. In term of considering the adoption process of this course, there are five stages which made me lead to this decision. Firstly, at the beginning of the process, the stage of awareness, which means that the consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it. In my situation, I made this plan for a year ago but did not know where I could apply and how its quality was. I started to search for essential information about this course before opened six months ago. After gathering much of raw information, there were four choices which I could make such as RMIT, Hawaii, Columbia and Troy. Secondly, in the Interest stage I began to analyze that information, which could classified into some categories or criterions.

Basing on these terms, I matched them to my requirements and made a decision for the most suitable. Finance was the first my issue because all of these course had the quite high fee. I removed any course that I could not afford. Quality was the second issue I considered very much because I did not want to invest the big money for getting nothing. Time was the last one, which could impact on my decision. It was not only how long this course took and what time a class began. Moreover, I called assistants for more detail information about this course and asked them to send me some materials related to it.

Therefore, I had a quite clear view of those courses and easier to make the final decision. Next, after all things considered, I chose MBA program of Troy, which was the most suitable and met more requirements. Those were the fee that I could pay for, the time that I could arrange with work. This happened in the Evaluation stage of adoption process. In the next stage, Trial, in my opinion this might be the transfer course time because I could evaluate the quality and quantity of this program. How was about teachers? Should did I continue or not? And finally, I decided to take this course –Troy MBA 5th intake in March.

QUESTION 3:

Refer to the article: VN has lucrative retail market: Research and Markets, from Vietnam News (June 15, 2011), copied below. 1. In your opinion, what are the reasons why modern retail concepts may work in Vietnam. Vietnam is famous for a traditional retail, with much many of convenience stores and mini markets placing at anywhere as possible. Therefore, people are formed a habit to buy their needs there. However, I personally believe that a modern retail formats will develop in the short future.

There are some reasons why this kind of retail is able to compete with the traditional retail stores embedded in society. Firstly, Vietnam is a developing country with economic growth of around 6.8 per cent in 2010 and will be kept steady for some next years. This means that average income will be increased and then demands more for variety products, quantity and quality of products as well. Consumers tend to buy products that may be different, style, fashion, or special with mass volume and expected price. All things create a strong force for traditional store or mini market, where only offers convenience goods with limited brands, how to meet those demands. Time by time, these stores are not able to satisfy customers’ increasing needs, so that is time the modern retails such as supermarket or hypermarket develops.

The second reason is a change of lifestyle. The young generation is more active and dynamic and shopping is one of the most favorite outside activities. Shopping now is not just for buying something but also for enjoying and relaxing. Furthermore, modern people have less time for buying, so they usually go shopping for much more goods in once and then put all of them in refrigerator. The supermarket or hypermarket can meet these requirements easily.

The third reason is a strong influence of western culture, which is appearing more clearly recently. The Internet is developing very quickly in Vietnam, so people are able to access to information about western countries easily. The young people tend to western-oriented life, they respect and pursue the modern world with arranged colorful big cities, luxurious cars, and entertainment industry. This changes the way they live and go shopping.

Finally, in term of demography, according to the General Statistic Office (GSO) Vietnam population in 2011 in total was 90,549,390 (July 2011 est.) with median age about 27.8 years. This means majority of the population is young and working class with higher purchasing power. The low median age of population means a higher current consumption rate which augurs well for the retail sector. This youthful, exuberant generation, bred on success will not drive the productivity but also set a spiraling effect on consumption and generation of income.

2. In your opinion, are there any pitfalls? If so, explain.

There are some pitfalls, in my opinion, in retail market in Vietnam. Shopping habit is the most important one of those. Going to convenience store or mini market to buy necessary things every day is the way the Vietnamese have been doing for a long time. “Chợ” (small market or store) merges in everywhere that makes people more comfortable to buy. Just walk out of home several feet steps, you can encounter many of small stores in which they sell almost the vital things for living. Moreover, 80% of population of Vietnam who are living in rural areas, where are lack of information about modern life. Thus, retailers should gradually penetrate to these markets to form a shopping habit instead of investing a big budget in style and strange supermarket there.

3. In your opinion, what would be the “factors critical to the success of the retail industry in Viet Nam”?

It is difficult to fit a successful international format directly and expect a similar performance in Vietnam. The lessons from multinationals expanding to new geographies also point to this. For example, Wal-Mart is highly successful in USA but the story is different in Asian countries like China. Therefore, it is important for a retailer to look at local conditions and insights into the local buying behavior before shaping the format choice. Considering the diversity in terms of taste and preferences prevailing in Vietnam, the retailers may go for experimentation to identify the winning format suited to different geographies and segments. For example, the taste in south is different from that in north and this brings challenges to the retailers. Therefore, most of grocery retailers are region centric at this point in time. //– may indirect

There are some key ways to develop modern market formats. The first, Try and Error mean that a number of retailers are in a mode of experimentation and trying several formats which are essentially the representation of retailing concepts to fit into the consumer mind space. The second, Increasing Acceptance of Rural Markets to exploit mass and potential market //–

In my opinion, there are two factors critical to the success of the retail industry in Viet Nam. The first factor is that our country’s economy is developing day by day, this lead to change in lifestyle and increase income. Therefore, lever of expenditure is getting higher and the ways to sell and buy is forwarding to the international market formats. The second is that the government of Vietnam gradually reduces barriers of trade by imposing some laws to favor more foreign investors and also removing some absolute laws. Moreover, Viet Nam has been a member of the WTO since 11 January 2007, this means that it has to play following the same rules and the same trade environment. This offers large and bright road for retailers to dominate in potential retail market in Viet Nam.

QUESTION 4:

Refer to the communication model described in class, and use two locally available brands of FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods), one Vietnamese and the other foreign. Describe, in details, how each brand goes through the elements of the model in their communication with their respective audiences. In your opinion, which one does a better job at communicating, and why?

Coca-cola is the most famous brand in the world. It firstly introduced to Vietnamese in 1960 and then immediately received impression from people. After 34 years absenting, in 1994 Coca-cola turned back to Viet Nam as a symbol of America and the number one of producing carbonated beverage in the world. Basing on advantages of famous brand, Coca-cola made a great marketing plan to penetrate in Viet Nam. With this strategy is to create differences and diversities, Coca-cola now holds 65% market share and provides around 25000 jobs for Vietnamese.

The question is that how can Coca-cola reach to these achievements when it came to Viet Nam later than Pepsi, the strongest competitor in Viet Nam; when the biggest competitor, Pepsi, has already set up factories and distribution channels completely throughout the country. It may find out some answers to this question in marketing strategies of those.

Moreover, in cognitive stage, Coca-cola wants to transmit a messages “Serve all people”, so Coca-cola uses a great strategy marketing to inform, persuade and remind people. Advertising is the most powerful weapon that Coca-cola used to get potential customers’ attention. It is difficult to find corporations which really fund for advertisements a budget equaling to costs of production, but Coca-cola do this for polishing its brand. Its purpose is to put in consumers’ mind an image of drinking, which is number one, which is healthy, which is friendly with environment and so on. With young people who are active, enthusiastic; who willing to try different things, Coca-cola used effervescent and provocative advertising clips included a short slogan, which may satisfy ego-centric trends of youth.

Moreover, it is wise and creative to use images generating family atmosphere, the most important element in Viet Nam’ value system. Coca-cola has been doing it well by using the box of 24 bottles or cans, which is decorated swallows, happy family, peach tree, cake and something else related to Tet festival in Viet Nam. This creates in consumer’s mind loving, warm family atmosphere, which in turn put in mind images of relationship between Coca-cola and Tet deeply. Because Tet is very important day of Vietnamese, so Coca-cola usually launches large-scale advertising campaign throughout Viet Nam territory. Especially, a series of items, with new packing, style, and attractive colors, were introduced in “Happiness Factory” in 2009 Tet.

In the affective and behavior stages, the customers really engage in activities to create their interest and desire of buying coke. Coca-cola uses very creatively diversity ways such as Money off coupon, Competitions, Free gifts, Point of sales materials and so on. It always chooses one or combined ones for specific or regular time to be launched. It seems that you have to be seen Coca-cola brand or related things every day. On the newspaper or television, on the billboards or posters, on the way you go to work or come back home, or even in the toilet you may see its logos. It is designed to draw in your perception without annoying you.

For example, Coca-cola give you free of five style cups, which are printed its logo, in each box of 24 cans you buy. Sometimes you may be engaged in a game of collecting lids to win a car, television or valuable prizes. Understanding an extremely passion of Vietnamese about football, Coca-cola usually hold big programs in the important football events. From donating for the national football team to creating crazy fan club, from some games for prizes to some products for souvenir, all are launched professionally. Sometimes, Coca-cola becomes a major sponsor for a football contest.

Coca-cola is usually willing to fund for community campaigns: supporting for “Cleaning international beach” program in Do Son, collaborating with UNDP to launch the program namely “Cleaning Water for community in Vietnam” and especially its “Everest Challenge” program in long-term strategy call Live Positively. By using friendly and profitable public programs, Coca-cola makes the relationships with public closer day by day. In the competitive strategy with Pepsi to penetrate in market, Coca-cola uses mobile means such as bicycle, small store to move everywhere for selling and introducing products.

Likewise, Vinamilk is one of successful company in Viet Nam in communication with customers. In the cognitive stage, customers, who are almost children, be attracted by a funny, friendly image of milk cows. Vinamilk wants to transmit to customers a message that “this milk is made from pure milk of cows and sterilized”. By using a lot of images related to farmers, cows, fields, families, and children, Vinamilk contributes to perception of customers that the products are friendly with environment, vital for health, and suitable for every family.

In the affective and behavior stages, Vinamilk holds some sport events, become a sponsor for charity programs, especially almost those programs concentrate on poor children, who do not afford for going to school, who are suffering malnutrition and the other adversity situations. This move impresses children and their families to interest more, desire more, and of course, make a decision to purchase more products of Vinamilk.

All things considered, I personally believe that Vinamilk does a better job at communicating with customers than Coca-cola in Vietnam. This is due to the ways Vinamilk informing, persuading and reminding are very friendly, funny, and close to its customers. It chooses the right image for right potential customers at the right time. The funny and lovely cow for the children is showed at school, children television programs, children sport events and so on.

QUESTION 5:

Consider Porter’s value chain and the holistic marketing orientation model. What implications do they have for marketing planning? How would you
structure a marketing plan to incorporate some of their concepts?

The marketing planning consists of analyzing market opportunities, selecting target markets, designing market strategies, developing marketing programs, and managing the marketing effort. In short, it outlines the specific actions you intend to carry out to interest potential customers and clients in your product or service and persuade them to buy the product or services you offer. On the other word, it shows how and what customer value is delivered. Therefore, Porter’s value chain and the holistic marketing orientation model help marketers to make a better marketing plan, which satisfies both customers and stakeholders.

Firstly, Michael Porter of Harvard has proposed the value chain as a tool for indentifying ways to create more customer value. This model comprises a sequence of value-generated activities found to be common to a wide range of firms. A marketer can use this tool for determining what product features, prices and distributions are, how to utilize sales force, sales promotion, advertising, and other communication tools to announce and promote the product. For example, if the marketer wanted to make a new marketing plan, he or she would need to know core competencies of a company, which may be the current production process, distribution channels and sales approach.

The value chain model supports the marketer for adjusting and identifying new product features in order to fit that capacities of production process (in Operations activity) and maximize a level of value that exceeds the cost of this activity, thereby resulting in a profit margin. Moreover, basing on current prices and distribution system (in Outbound Logistics activity), the marketer may determine whether to use current system or to launch new distribution channels. Finally, marketing and sales activities and service activities, which are described in value chain, help marketer find out solutions to promote and deliver product better.

Whether a new advertising or sales promotion influence over the other activities in the organizational value chain? What is the most suitable support service to apply to this new product? What is about finance situation?. Looking from this picture, the marketer can make a marketing plan more efficiently and maximize the contributed value of each primary activities and support activities in value chain model.

Secondly, holistic marketing can help capture customer value and succeed by managing a superior value chain that delivers a high level of product quality, service and speed. Basing on value exploration activities, which show how can a company identify new value opportunities, so that marketers easily determine what the most profitable segments are. Next, value creation activities, which show how can a company efficiently create more promising new value offerings, help the marketer know who the customer admires, who they interact with and who influences them to craft new customer benefits. This generates a new idea for adding new features, which in turn increase competitive advantages….

QUESTION 6 :

What brands and products do you feel successfully “speak to you” and effectively target your age group? Why? Which ones do not? What could they do better?

There is a brand and product that made me impressively at the first sight, Heineken it is. I remembered that I saw a first short advertising clip of it on television several years ago. That was about 32 seconds of moment clip led audiences to experience different level of feelings. At the very beginning, it immediately captured your notice by a gentleman fishing for something in a massive freezing ice bucket with huge efforts and patient. It was very curious to want to know what he was looking for, so your eyes being attached on screen as the way advertiser’s want. Moreover, the melodious music of “Quando Quando Quando” song really conquered my ears and attention. “Tell me when will you be mine

Tell me quando, quando, quando
We can share a love divine
Please don´t make me wait again”

After some seconds he picked up a bottle of beer with his blushing and trembling hand and then came to his group of two men, who had the same situation. In the last scenario of the clip, three men were looked very cold with the bottle of Heineken beer in their hand. All things happened to me was no meaning except the curious, funny, and surprising feelings even though closing scene was showed with slogan: “Never settle for less”. It took me several minutes after to understand what had been happening, and I am sure that you have the same feelings too. You was put an image of Heineken in mind in the intelligent and interesting way.

Thereafter, I began to be interested in searching for information about that beer, which owns and manages one of the world’s leading portfolios of beer brands and is one of the world’s leading brewers in terms of sales volume and profitability. Now, I am completely conquered, so whenever having a chance to drink beers I choose Heineken, which is really delicious beer. This clip also influences on the male, who are mature, by using three gentlemen to create good and respect brand of someone else when drinking this kind of beer. It is successful to position and segment target customers.

All things considered, there is no need to launch a large-scale and professional marketing campaign order to inform, persuade and remind me, just needs one 32 seconds of advertising clip is enough.

On the other hand, there are some brands and products which do not impress me. ThongNhat bicycle is one of them. In the past, possessing a ThongNhat bicycle was an honor of many people, but now it was defeated in its home. Why? There are many main reasons for this consequence. Firstly, its styles are poor and tradition which do not attract the major customers, who are students tending to fashionable trends. Secondly, its price is quite high compared to same kinds of bicycles and a level of living of almost Vietnamese. Finally, its advertising and sales promotion are not good, it seems that you rarely see it on television except through a word of mouth.

In contrast, there are many kinds of China bicycle importing in Viet Nam. These ones meet almost requirements of students in particular and Vietnamese in general. China bicycles are very stylish, fashion and the prices are quite cheap, which are all things ThongNhat needed to consider if it would want to develop and get back its golden age.

QUESTION 7 :
Consider the lifetime value of customers (CLV). What does the concept refer to? Design an example to support your understanding of the concept.

The lifetime value of a customer is a measure of the value of the customer to your business. It is the potential contribution of the customer to your business over a period of time. When you know the lifetime value of a customer, you have a benchmark for how much you would or should be willing to invest to acquire a customer. This means that you should see in the long-term to get potential customers instead of looking in the short-term with a high profit in advance. Therefore, concentrating on creating and maintaining relationships with customers, who will contribute to business’ profit by their loyalty, is very important for a business’ success. Toyota is one of the perfect examples for maintaining customer relationships and brands. It recently has announced to receive up to 2.17 million cars because of a brake fault.

This move of Toyota shows not only its responsibility for safety of customers, but also its message that it wants to bring high-valued products and services and the most satisfying ownership experience. This is not the first time Toyota make a recall for some errors, so this can prove how powerful to know and correct fault honestly. Behind this action, Toyota firmly understands about what will happen if one of its clients gets an accident because of that fault. What is more, 2.17 clients and even more will be very satisfied and impressed by this honest and responsible service. It is the beginning point for creating lifetime value of customer when those clients say to their children or friends about this, which in turn to contribute more potential customers to businesses. From generation after generation, those who are willing to buy Toyota car for all their lives. This is the way Toyota generates profits when knowing clearly lifetime value of customer concept.

QUESTION 8 :
As you have learned, everything can be marketed. Think of yourself, and define and discuss yourself in terms of the 4Ps.

It is a reality that everything can be marketed and people in general and myself in particular are not exception. In term of the 4Ps, I myself was considered to be a product for sale. Firstly, regarding to Product concept, with a certificate of information technology engineer and several experiment years, I can offer a labor market capacities of researching, analyzing, and designing information systems, especially the management systems in the financial and accounting fields. Moreover, my English skills are quite good enough for working at international environment. I also can work in high pressure, challenge and creative tasks. In term of service concept, I am patient enough to keep up with a long time project, humor enough to break a tension of someone, humble enough to learn from anyone, compassionate enough to help the others as much as possible, and positive enough to believe that the legend world is true.

Secondly, Promotion means that customers have to be made aware of the product. On the other word, I have to do something to inform, persuade and remind the labor markets that who I am, what I can offer and how I can deliver my values. It may be a solution to advertize on some working websites, send curriculum vitae to my friends or go to a company order to introduce myself. Especially, I can involve in some scandals for purpose of noticing the others and media as the way some super stars have done. Thirdly, pricing me is quite difficult and sensitive. The price must be high enough to cover costs (tuition, cost of living, costs of job application) and make profits (salary, bonus) but low enough to attract employers. There are a number of possible pricing strategies.

The most commonly used are: PENETRATION PRICING – charging a low price, possibly not quite covering costs, to gain a position in the market. By using this method you can have more chance to get a job, and such opportunity may lead you to success. CREAMING – the opposite to penetration pricing, this involves charging a deliberately high price to persuade employers that the product is of high quality. COST PLUS PRICING – this is the most common form of pricing. Costs are totaled and a margin is added on for profit to make the total price. Finally, in term of Place concept, I am living in Hanoi city where I also want to work. Thus, it is convenient and suitable for the companies, which are located in Hanoi too, which are willing to buy my offers.

QUESTION 9 :

Colleges, universities and other organizations can be classified as service organizations. How can you apply the marketing principles developed in chapter 13 to Troy MBA? Do you have any advice as to how it could become a better service marketer?

QUESTION 10 :

Think of some of your favorite brands. Do you know where they come from? Where and how they are made or provided? Do you think knowing these answers would affect your perceptions of quality or satisfaction?

Coca-cola is the most famous brand in the world. It firstly introduced to Vietnamese in 1960 and then immediately received impression from people. After 34 years absenting, in 1994 Coca-cola turned back to Viet Nam as a symbol of America and the number one of producing carbonated beverage in the world. Basing on advantages of famous brand, Coca-cola made a great marketing plan to penetrate in Viet Nam. With this strategy is to create differences and diversities, Coca-cola now holds 65% market share and provides around 25000 jobs for Vietnamese.

In term of ingredients in Coca-cola, published versions say it contains sugar or high fructose corn syrup, caramel color, caffeine, phosphoric acid, coca extract, kola nut extract, lime extract, vanilla and glycerin. Alleged syrup recipes vary greatly. The basic “cola” taste from Coca-Cola and competing cola drinks comes mainly from vanilla and cinnamon; distinctive tastes among various brands are the result of trace flavorings such as orange, lime and lemon and spices such as nutmeg. Some natural colas also include cola nut; Coca-Cola does not, and chemical testing reveals none. Because cocaine is naturally present in coca leaves, today’s Coca-Cola uses “spent,” or treated, coca leaves, those that have been through a cocaine extraction process, to flavor the beverage.

The coca leaves are imported from countries like Peru and Bolivia, and they are treated by chemical company Stepan, which then sells the de-cocainized residue to Coca-Cola. Some contend that this process cannot extract all of the cocaine alkaloids at a molecular level, and so the drink still contains trace amounts of the stimulant. The Coca-Cola Company currently refuses to comment on the continued presence of coca leaf in Coca-Cola. To this day, Coca-Cola uses a United States license to purify the coca leaf for medicinal use. (sources: Wikipedia).

Advertising is the most powerful weapon that Coca-cola used to get potential customers’ attention. It is difficult to find corporations which really fund for advertisements a budget equaling to costs of production, but Coca-cola do this for polishing its brand. Its purpose is to put in consumers’ mind an image of drinking, which is number one, which is healthy, which is friendly with environment and so on. With young people who are active, enthusiastic; who willing to try different things, Coca-cola used effervescent and provocative advertising clips included a short slogan, which may satisfy ego-centric trends of youth.

Moreover, it is wise and creative to use images generating family atmosphere, the most important element in Viet Nam’ value system. Coca-cola has been doing it well by using the box of 24 bottles or cans, which is decorated swallows, happy family, peach tree, cake and something else related to Tet festival in Viet Nam. This creates in consumer’s mind loving, warm family atmosphere, which in turn put in mind images of relationship between Coca-cola and Tet deeply. Because Tet is very important day of Vietnamese, so Coca-cola usually launches large-scale advertising campaign throughout Viet Nam territory. Especially, a series of items, with new packing, style, and attractive colors, were introduced in “Happiness Factory” in 2009 Tet.

Coca-cola uses very creatively diversity ways such as Money off coupon, Competitions, Free gifts, Point of sales materials and so on. It always chooses one or combined ones for specific or regular time to be launched. It seems that you have to be seen Coca-cola brand or related things every day. On the newspaper or television, on the billboards or posters, on the way you go to work or come back home, or even in the toilet you may see its logos. It is designed to draw in your perception without annoying you.

For example, Coca-cola give you free of five style cups, which are printed its logo, in each box of 24 cans you buy. Sometimes you may be engaged in a game of collecting lids to win a car, television or valuable prizes. Understanding an extremely passion of Vietnamese about football, Coca-cola usually hold big programs in the important football events. From donating for the national football team to creating crazy fan club, from some games for prizes to some products for souvenir, all are launched professionally. Sometimes, Coca-cola becomes a major sponsor for a football contest.

Coca-cola is usually willing to fund for community campaigns: supporting for “Cleaning international beach” program in Do Son, collaborating with UNDP to launch the program namely “Cleaning Water for community in Vietnam” and especially its “Everest Challenge” program in long-term strategy call Live Positively. By using friendly and profitable public programs, Coca-cola makes the relationships with public closer day by day. In the competitive strategy with Pepsi to penetrate in market, Coca-cola uses mobile means such as bicycle, small store to move everywhere for selling and introducing products. This is in its mission “Server all people”.

In conclude, I personally think that if customers knew about where products come from, how products are made, and how products are provided or delivered, they would understand more about products. This makes customers use those products more efficiently, which in turn contribute better image to customers’ perception and satisfy their requirements.


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