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An Evaluation of Academic Performance of Grade 1 Pupils with and Without Early Childhood Experience Essay

“Bright minds make bright future!” Preparatory children nowadays are far better than before they are more advanced in teaching and more capable of absorbing the methods of learning that used with them. Modern teaching accompanied with modules and analytical measures develop the preschooler’s memory retention that serves as the foundation of their education. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning.

The value of preschool is a hot topic these days. A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests

The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage. Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction. The institutional arrangements for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do the names applied to the institutions. Effective preschool education can help make all children ready to learn the day they start school and, more importantly, help close the enormous gap facing children in poverty. Preschool gives our kids the strong foundation they need to be successful in school and in life. Children who attend pre-kindergarten programs have bigger vocabularies and increased math skills, know more letters and more letter-sound associations, and are more familiar with words and book concepts, according to a number of studies (Patson P. Opido 2010).

The child is the ultimate concern in all educational processes. He is the beginning at the end of all educational efforts. The goal of education is to help every child grow up well-rounded; physically well-developed, mentally healthy, intelligently alert, emotionally secure and socially well adjusted. These can be truly achieved by giving attention to the child’s foundation.

The first day of the children in school is a unique experience. It may be their first contact with big group of children. The difference among first grade pupils in their level of preparedness to grade one work may vary. The grade I teacher should be aware of the differences in the children’s readiness; some readiness is the springboard to do actions. Knowing pupil’s differences will guide the teacher on what to do to develop them to the fullest ( Lindberg and Swedo, 1995).

A child born of a healthy, responsible and emotionally mature parents has a good foundation. His parents, especially the mother, guide him through the proper habits of eating, sleeping and cleanliness.

An individual’s attitude toward himself and others, his behaviour either at work or at play, and his emotional roots in his early childhood experiences. What he learns at home constitutes the basis for future learning and adjustment.

As the child develops social awareness, he needs to experience association with a larger group outside his home. Parents send their children to school simply because they want them to develop basic health habits and self sufficiency. Furthermore, this also includes the ability to use language patterns for simple and correct social attitudes in relation to the company of people around him, whether adults or other children and the appreciation of the aesthetic attributes of his immediate surroundings.

Modern teaching accompanied with modules and analytical measures develop the preschooler’s memory retention serving as the foundation of their education. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning. The value of preschool is a hot topic these days. A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests. The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage. Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction.

Parents on the other hand, play a vital role in educating their children because they are their first teachers, which is the greatest contribution before a child ever begins his formal education in school. When a child enters the formal school, he carries out with him the acquired values from his parents. Just like the teacher’s task, if parents fail to perform their responsibilities, it may bring misbehaviour on their children which may directly or indirectly affect the child’s academic performance.

In the Philippine public elementary schools today, inner tensions have been continuously affecting the learners going to grade one level, especially those who had never gone to any kind of schooling before. These learners entering grade one have many apprehensions. Most of them have no experiences in going to school. Parents are not capable of sending them to school especially those in remote and slum areas. Instead of giving their children a chance to study in Day Care Centers and Kindergarten in some public elementary schools, they ended up waiting for their to be accepted in Grade One.

With these scenarios the pupils encounter difficulties in catching up with different skills like numeracy and literacy which are now the basic skills necessary in the first grade level of formal schooling. These children also suffer in relating themselves to their new environment, the school. In order to have a smooth transition from home to school and to prepare them socially and psychologically, the curriculum on the Early Childhood Experiences was recommended for adoption in all public elementary schools as included in Every Child A Reader Program ( ECARP). It aims to developing the reading readiness and developmental reading in Grade one as launched by the Department of Education.

One of the major goals of the 2015 Education for All (EFA) is the expansion of the coverage and improvement of the quality of the Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs in the country. The present government administration in its Ten-Point Agenda has declared a policy calling for the standardization of preschool and day care centers.

The Department of Education (DepEd) in support of this thrust will administer School Readiness Assessment Test to All Grade One Entrants, effective SY 2005-2006. The School Readiness Assessment (SRA) is a tool to determine the readiness of Grade One entrants in tackling formal Grade One work.

The School Readiness Assessment Tool will be administered by Grade One teachers assisted by the Grade Two and Three teachers one week before opening of classes. The assessment shall not be treated as an entrance test or examination. No child shall be refused entry to Grade 1 based on the results neither of this assessment nor without preschool experience.

To continuously determine the school readiness of all Grade One Entrants, the School Readiness Assessment (SReA) was administered. One of the objectives of SReA is to assess pupils’ readiness across the different developmental domains – gross and fine motor, receptive/ expressive language, cognitive domain and socio- economic domain.

The result obtained was the basis for grouping the Grade One entrants. It was also used to guide Grade One teachers in providing appropriate instruction and assistance to address specific needs of the pupils.

The result of the School Readiness Test in May 2011 identified that there were at least forty two point ninety eight percent of the school population of Grade One entrants were not ready. Children with No Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) has low average in pupils’ readiness across the different developmental domains – gross and fine motor, receptive/ expressive language, cognitive domain and socio- economic domain.

Background of the Study

The researcher is motivated by the above mentioned situation and this led to the conceptualization of this study. As an educator, the researcher is faced with the fact that there is an imperative need to strengthen and streamline the internal management of educational arrangements in order to achieve efficiency and responsiveness to trends and challenges of the next millennium. It is therefore the aim of this study to empower parents and positively influence them on affirmative effects of pre-school education in the holistic development of their children particularly on the advancement of their academic performance.

The value of preschool is a hot topic these days. A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests. The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage. Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction. The institutional arrangements for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do the names applied to the institutions ( Bustos Alicia and Espiritu 1985).

The Early Childhood Experiences Curriculum, hence all Grade One teachers are expected to implement it. Teachers are also encouraged to make use of local songs, games, dances and indigenous materials to enrich the curriculum. It is hoped that the Early Childhood Experience for Grade One will greatly benefit the children and strengthen efforts to make the schools child-friendly.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on Edward Thorndike’s, Jerome Bruner’s, and B.F. Skinner’s Theories of Learning. These theories enabled the researcher in the conceptualization of this work.

The Law of Readiness as advocated by Thorndike is associated with mind set. It states that when an organism is prepared to respond to a stimulus, allowing doing so would be satisfying while preventing him would be annoying. This law works well in this study because the children is mentally ready to learn. The Law of Exercise states that the constant repetition of response strengthens its connection with the stimulus, while disuse of response weakens it. The exercises given to the children using a modifiable connection like instructional materials enables them to acquire the learning easier and faster because the responses will be utilized, the stronger the connection to be developed. Thus, when a modifiable between a stimulus and a response has been made, it is strengthened if its results in satisfaction as the Law of effect proves.

Jerome Bruner’s (1915) theory of Instrumental conceptualization is also applied as it involves (3) three simultaneous processes as: Acquisition, Transformation and Evaluation. This theory of learning believes that the acquisition of whatever form of knowledge acquisition, who selects structures, retains and transforms information. Teaching without the use of proper strategic plans will result to failure. Through School Readiness Assessment Test (SReA), pupils will acquire knowledge through different techniques used by the researchers. Hence, learning to read is facilitated by Skinner’s Theory.

Conceptual Framework

This study focused on the evaluation of academic performance of Grade One pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience of Sto. Niño Elementary School. The independent variable consist of School Readiness Assessment Test (SReA) for children with and without Early Childhood Experience while the dependent variable is the academic performance of the respondents in terms of the following: Sensory Discrimination, Concept Formation, Numeracy, Reading Readiness and Construction and Visual Motor Integration.


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