Whatever the researchers achieve in life, they are certainly the result of loving, affection, and caring people who have been through the years nurturing, realizing the dreams and aspiration. They are the people who have encouraged, bolster the self- confidence, and lift the spirit in times of confusion, helplessness, and vulnerability. They express kind words, extend a helping hand, lend ears, and believe the ability of the researcher as a person, and most of all as a student. They are indeed, the agent of the researcher’s unfolding. This research would not be possible without the kind assistance and untiring support of good friends who shade strength in making this study a reality. Thus, the researchers wish to express deep gratitude to the wonderful and uncountable blessings of the Lord, throughout the writing of this research. Thanking the Lord for the sound mind and health bestowed to the researchers.
Deepest gratitude to Miss Sharmaine teacher for her encouragement and guidance.
Mrs. Grace G. Alutaya for giving constructive and valuable suggestions in improving the write-ups and content of the research. The researchers parents for the unconditional love and unwavering support.
And to all the person who helped the researchers, a precious thanks and appreciations to all.
The project aimed to consider ink as charcoal, advantages and disadvantages of using charcoal as ink, and the effectiveness of the finish product to the commercial ink available in the market. The study launched made use of the descriptive- experimental method. The research done needed the following materials to made the experiment successful. Some materials needed were just accessible in the kitchen. Few of materials needed were recycled. Some tools needed were bought to ensure proper measurement of the product tested. The data gathered for the study charcoal as substitute to pentel pen ink are presented,analyzed and interpreted in this chapter. The study was conducted in the home of the research leader , Purok- 8, Cayutan, Cagniog, Surigao City Based on the findings, the three liquids such as water, kerosene and gasoline are not the best choice to be experimented when it comes to let an unused pentel ink reusable again. The researchers therefore recommend to use alcohol as best way to reuse again the pentel pen.
This Investigatory Project entitled
CHARCOAL AS SUBSTITUTE TO PENTEL PEN INK
prepared and submitted by Klaus Steven Kinkel G. Alutaya, Jayford Guy-ab, Julie Ann Jumandos, Joshua Jordan Chua, Jaypaul Roma has been examined and is recommended for approval and acceptance for
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PANEL OF EXAMINERS
APPROVED by the committee on Oral Examination with the
Grade of ___ on January 2011
ACCEPTED in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
Background of the Study
Pentel pen is very useful to everyone especially to students and teachers. Thus one of the main reason of the research team to arrived to this study is the usefulness to the researchers. The researchers find difficulty in choosing the product to be tested and to be experimented. The leader of the research team arrived to this kind of problem for the leader itself uses charcoal as substitute to liquefied petroleum gas in their home for cooking. And curiously had the idea to discover further, the uses of charcoal to our lives especially nowadays experiencing crisis. And out of curiosity, the research leader had an idea what if he could discover charcoal pentel pen ink substitute. And this will be proven as soon as experiments will be thoroughly done by the group.
Review of Related Literature
All natural wood charcoal has been used since 30,000 BC. Originally used in cave drawings, by 3,500 BC wood charcoal, was commonly used as a fuel throughout Europe and Asia. The Egyptians used it in Iron smelting and in producing glass. It brought the world into the Bronze Age around 2,000 BC. By 500 BC woodland management was evident, thus guaranteeing the supply of the most influential fuel in history. Two thousand years ago, wood charcoal really took off. In AD 43-410, the Romans were coppicing on a truly grand scale (Coppicing is cutting a tree, typically old growth tree, to ground level. This 2 invigorates the plant, and the root system is directed to growing a number of new shoots. These shoots grow vigorously allowing for quicker and bountiful coppicing every 7 to 20 years). Wood charcoal was not only the fuel of choice at this time, but was also used in making tar for caulking and a thinner version is used in embalming. It was used in dyes, and as construction material in wet areas where rotting was an issue. During this period wood charcoal was also used in filtration and purification of liquids for the first time.
From 1900 to present day, wood charcoal has been replaced as the fuel of choice to power the civilized world. Wood charcoal, however,finds a new importance in its uses in filtration and purification, horticulture, and animal feed, and pharmaceuticals, as well as its continued use in lesser-developed countries as a major and more healthful fuel source than wood and fossil fuels. In the other hand, according to Wikipedia, many ancient cultures around the world have independently discovered and formulated inks for the purposes of writing and drawing. The knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production comes from archaeological analysis or from written text itself. The history of Chinese inks can be traced back to the 12th century BC, with the utilization of natural plant (plant dyes), animal, and mineral inks based on such materials as graphite that were ground with water and applied with ink brushes. Evidence for the earliest Chinese inks, similar to modern inksticks, is around 256 BC in the end of the Warring States Period and produced using manual labour from soot and animal glue.
3 The India ink used in ancient India since at least the 4th century BC was called masi, and was made of burnt bones, tar, pitch, and other substances. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Chinese Turkestan.The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in early South India. Several Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink. In ancient Rome, atramentum was used. Not much was known about this ink because no one has used it in a long time. About 1,600 years ago, a popular ink recipe was created. The recipe was used for centuries. Iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate (made by treating iron with sulfuric acid), were mixed with tannin from gallnuts (they grow on trees) and a thickener. When first put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. Over time it fades to a dull brown.Scribes in medieval Europe (about AD 800 to 1500) wrote principally on parchment or vellum. One 12th century ink recipe called for hawthorn branches to be cut in the spring and left to dry. Then the bark was pounded from the branches and soaked in water for eight days. The water was boiled until it thickened and turned black. Wine was added during boiling. The ink was poured into special bags and hung in the sun. Once dried, the mixture was mixed with wine and iron salt over a fire to make the final ink. The reservoir pen, which may have been the first fountain pen, dates back to 953, when Ma’ād al-Mu’izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen that would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen that held ink in a reservoir.
In the 15th century, a new type of ink had to be developed in Europe for the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. Two types of ink were prevalent at the time: the Greek and Roman writing ink (soot, glue, and water) and the 12th century variety composed of ferrous sulfate, gall, gum, and water. Neither of these handwriting inks could adhere to printing surfaces without creating blurs. Eventually an oily, varnish-like ink made of soot, turpentine, and walnut oil was created specifically for the printing press. Up until a few years ago, consumers had very little interest in ink other than refills for their pens. Fountain pens became a novelty as the disposable ball point pen took over the market. The introduction of home computing led to home printing. Today, in developed nations, most residences and businesses have a printing capability. As a result, buying ink in the form of a printer cartridge has once again become a part of the day-to-day shopping experience, similar to buying a bottle of ink fifty years ago. Ink refilling services for printer cartridges are offered by large, official printing companies as well as smaller, “unofficial” refill companies. Customers can often cut printing costs by using refill services from a refill company, or buying the new non-OEM (original equipment manufacturer) brands instead of refilling.
The refilling of ink cartridges and the use of continuous ink supply systems for inkjet printers is very common in most countries, with the exception of the United States. As printer manufacturers control the type of competition that they allow on retail shelves to a great extent, devices to ease the use of refill inks are usually only available online.
Statement of the Problem
This study sought to answer the following questions:
a.Can Alcohol with charcoal be considered as ink?
b.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol with charcoal as ink? c.Which is more effective the commercial ink or the alcohol with charcoal ink?
Significance of the Study
The researchers hope that the findings of this research and study will be a great interest and valuable usefulness to the following:
The result of this research and study will enable the researchers to present recommendations which will serve as basis for the effective way of using the said study.
To enable them to discover that charcoal as ink is helpful to a student to minimize buying commercial ink since this is expensive over the counter.
To enable the teachers to used this technique at home for their own satisfaction and practice cross cutting at home.
Community.The result of this research and study will enable the community to maximize the use of charcoal as ink 6 instead of relying on commercial ink which are highly priced nowadays.
Scope and Limitation
This study focused on charcoal can be considered as ink, the advantages and disadvantages of using charcoal as ink, and the effectiveness of charcoal as ink compared to commercial ink in the market.
Definition of Terms
Charcoal – is the dark grey residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Ink -is a liquid that contains pigments and / or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing and / or writing with a pen, brush or quill.
Volatile- means changing or changeable
Alcohol-is an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms.
Ethyl -an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6). It has the formula –C2H5 and is very often abbreviated Et. Ethyl is used in the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry for a saturated two-carbon moiety in a molecule, whilst the prefix “eth-” is used to indicate the presence of two carbon atoms in the molecule.
The study launched made use of the descriptive- experimental method. In connection to the study the researchers find relevancy and appropriateness of the method since it involved the collection of the data, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the conditions that exist.
The research done need the following materials to made the experiment successful. Some materials needed were just accessible in the kitchen. Few of materials needed were recycled. Some tools needed were bought to ensure proper measurement of the product tested.
•Alcohols ( ethyl and rubbing)
•Mortar and pestle
•Bowl, tissue paper/ rug
The experiment made was done at a spacious room away from the children. The data gathered through experiment and evaluation. The study launched make used of the descriptive- experimental method. In connection to the study the researchers find relevancy and appropriateness of the method since it involved the collection of the data, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the conditions that exist.
B.1 Preparation of the Materials
1.1. Gather all materials in one place that is free from children. Occupy a spacious room in which no one will disturb your work. B.2 Preparation of the Powdered Charcoal
2.1. Pound the charcoal in a mortar with the pestle. Do it until the charcoal is very fine to touch.
B.3 Testing of the Liquids
3.1. Try the charcoal to the two alcohol to be tested (rubbing & ethyl alcohol) B.4 Application of the two alcohols to Paper
4.1. Apply the pentel pen to a paper to test which of the two alcohols is effective.
B.5 Data Collection
Research is always part of being a student. Thus , the researchers preparean experiment through this processes. First, preparation of materials is done
Flowchart of Methodology
Preparation of the materials
Preparation of the Powdered Charcoal
Testing of the alcohols
Application of the two alcohols to Paper
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The data gathered for the study charcoal as substitute to pentel pen ink are presented, analyzed and interpreted in this chapter.
Testing the alcohol with charcoal
Liquid Trial 1 Trial 2
Charcoal with ethyl alcohol
The researchers put 1 ½ tablespoon of charcoal to the unused pencil case with minimum amount of alcohol just above the amount of the charcoal and mixed. Pentel pen works as soon as it was tested to write on the bond paper.The researchers added 1 tablespoon of charcoal to determine whether if there is difference when a bigger amount of charcoal be put to the alcohol, and it really worked. Charcoal with rubbing alcohol The researchers put 1 ½ tablespoon of charcoal to the unused pencil case with minimum amount of alcohol just above the amount of the charcoal and mixed. Pentel pen works as soon as it was tested to write on the bond paper. The researchers added 1 tablespoon of charcoal to determine whether if there is difference when a bigger amount of charcoal be put to the alcohol, and it really worked.
The experiments showed that alcohol is a good liquid substance to be mixed with charcoal to be able to come up with a good output.
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
The experiment was conducted to determine if alcohol with charcoal can be considered as ink, furthermore to know the disadvantages and advantages of using charcoal as ink and to be able to know which is more effective the commercial ink or the charcoal ink.`
Based on the above findings the three liquids; water, kerosene, and are not the best choice to be experimented when it comes to let an unused pentel ink reusable again. We recommend using alcohol as best way to reused again the pentel pen. In addition, alcohol and charcoal can help unused pentel pen work. And aside from the observation, the color of the ink did not change into black even if the charcoal itself is black. It still stayed as is.
Based on study conducted alcohol is the best liquid that reacted to charcoal. It is therefore summed up that among the four liquids experimented alcohol is really a good solution to be mixed with charcoal.
1.A study should be conducted thoroughly to test the effectiveness of the two alcohols to the unused pentel pen.
2.other recommended titles include:
2.1 Alcohol as best first aid to pentel pen not working
2.2. Charcoal as substitute to shoe polisher 2.3 Charcoal as substitute to crayons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal_(color) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal_(typeface) http://www.emedicinehealth.com/activated_charcoal/article_em.htm
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