Albert Einstein, who many people regard him as the greatest physicist of the 20th century, was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1879. Was a German origin and Jewish, but he felt neither German, due to the militarized culture, nor fanatical Jew, because of their refusal to believe in God’s image as described in the texts of the Old Testament. In 1880 his family moved to Munich where his father, Hermann Einstein and his uncle Jacob Einstein opened a small electromechanical workshop. In Munich Albert spent his childhood and there he learned the first letters in a very strict school. The military discipline of the German culture in the 19th century did not seem suited to his liberal nature, for that reason Einstein doesn’t showed no particular performance in school. Along with other studies and the bossy insistence of his mother, Einstein studied music and although he played only for rest was an accomplished violinist.
(8) Albert Einstein Life
From a little child Einstein was very curious. His answers are always late, which worried his parents whether he had mental problems. At the age of 10 years decided that the school did not offer him anything and he joined a program of studying at home something like homeschooling, where he read as much as he could about science and philosophy. In his childhood two people impacted significantly in shaping the thinking of Albert. His uncle Jacob who inspired him revealing the whole charm of Mathematics, and his uncle Cesar Koch that he implanted him, greedy can say curiosity about science.(2)
However Einstein dealt with the physical science from a real young age. His uncle had a factory alternator, lamps, arc and telephones. These things were high tech then. So every day was debate about science at home and the relevant interest in small-Einstein physics came naturally. He wrote that at age four or five years gave him a compass. The ability of the needle always points in the same direction pulled by an invisible force convinced him that there should be “something behind things, something deeply hidden.”(1)
At the age of twelve he read a book on Euclidean plane geometry. He did so much impressed by the Euclidean way of thinking, called the book “Sanctuary.” Einstein who still was a child considered science “a great, eternal riddle,” the study of which should be devoted to finding the “inner freedom and security.”Einstein was smart, but nothing special compared to other intelligent peers. Despite what is said, was a good student at school and got his diploma with good grade. But he hated the school which went to Munich, because that is where their success is based only on memorization and obedience to professorial authority. The actual study was done at home with books on mathematics, physics and philosophy. “Einstein was not going to prosper in life,” said Dr.Zosef Ntegkenchart, who was his professor in the seventh grade. (8)
At twelve years old, Einstein decided to devote himself to solving the puzzle called “universe”. Three years later, in 15 years, with very low marks in history, geography and foreign languages, he left school without getting certificate, resigned from his German citizenship, broke all relations with the Jewish community, at the age of 16years getting his father to declare to the authorities as “no religion” and the rest of his life tried to keep distance from organized religious activities and groups. Einstein created his own religion, in the same manner and for the same reason that created his science and went to Milan to meet his family, who had recently emigrated, because his father was not going well. After 1-2 years of inaction, decide to give examinations at the Technical school of Zurich, as an autodidact with no high school diploma.
The attempt failed and a teacher recommended that he must attend high school courses in Aarau. There followed in the years 1895 – 1896, the third and fourth class of high school. Eventually, after school lessons, Einstein in 1896 entered the technologic school at Zurich to study technical school instructor, where he successfully completed four years of study in physics. (8) . After graduating in the spring of 1900, having previously reject German citizenship and was Swiss, he worked for two months as a teacher of Mathematics in 1902 and finally was hired as examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. In 1903 Einstein married Mileva Maric on a Hungarian classmate who had met and fallen in love five years ago, during their studies. Together we had a daughter, Lieserl, 1902. The manners of the time did not allow the existence of illegitimate children, and so Lieserl up for adoption and ever since has traces were lost.
In 1904 became father for second time and he got a son, Hans Albert. His closest friend was Michel Besson; with him they discussed all his ideas about physics. They had formed a friendly circle in Bern with other motivated people and met regularly to discuss scientific and philosophical issues. They name themselves Olympic Academy, mocking the official academic status quo of their times. Gradually abandoned his family immersed in his scientific work, this led to begin the procedures for divorce in 1914. Later, in 1917, Einstein became serious ill, and then his cousin Elsa undertook his care, which fell in love and married her in 1919. (8) The first years of the 20th century did not seem all that Einstein was to become the scientist would leave an unforgettable mark on the world.
Despite numerous requests sent to several universities, could not find a job. In contrast, three of his friends and fellow students had already begun to work as assistants. After completing his studies Einstein found a position as assistant teacher in Winterthur, but was fired after a while, because of failure. He told his associates “I hired as an assistant teacher and waited for a Socrates.” The father of a classmate recommended him sometime in the Director of the Swiss patent office in Bern. His job was to prepare the documents for the recognition of patents and for this purpose should describe them any invention soon, understandable and comprehensive.
The inventors themselves were not usually able to describe their invention. Here emerged an ability of Einstein, to extend foreign ideas and recognize the essence of a process or mechanism, while identifying some errors. He confessed later that this work had fascinated him and was his hobby and instead to publish in journals uninteresting scientific papers. This is one of the most productive and most remarkable periods of his life. Away from the scientific community and without the benefits that could result from contact with colleagues, wrote a multitude of scientific articles in the field of theoretical physics.(8)
Albert Einstein Work
The 1905 was a unique year in the history of physics. At 26 years old, published in important journals within a few months, four momentous research papers that changed the image of humanity in the world. In early 1905, Einstein published the monthly German magazine «Annalen der Physik» (Annals of Physics) a thesis entitled: “A new determination of molecular dimensions”, which gained a PhD from the University of Zurich. Four more great articles published in the journal, the same year, and changed forever the vision that was the man for the universe. (4)
In the first of these articles gave the explanation of the photoelectric effect, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. On the assumption of quantization that was introduced some years earlier by Planck for interpretation of the black body radiation. He argued that light acts as if composed of discrete, independent particles of energy. These particles have energy that is proportional to the frequency of light as they propagate. They called this particles light quanta. He demonstrated that the assumption of light quanta with the above properties could explain phenomena that were examining the experimental physicists of the time, as the photoelectric effect. These two works of Planck and Einstein were the principle of quantum mechanics. Later, Einstein opposed the theory of quanta, why could not believe that “God plays dice.”
In his article “A creative approach on the production and transformations of light” Einstein raised the assumption that light consists of individual “action figures”, which apart from the wave behavior give the light of certain properties characteristic of particles. So in an effort achieved two goals: revolutionize the theory of light and explain, among other things, the emission of electrons from some solids when these incident light. (4) . The special theory of relativity Einstein’s first published under the title “The electrodynamics of moving bodies” and was based on an essay he wrote when he was sixteen years old. The central idea of the theory was that if, for all reference speed of light is constant and if all natural laws are the same, then both the time and the movement depends on the reference system in which they are measured.
A stationary observer sees two trains intersect in parallel lines can measure their speed at 50 to 60 miles an hour. The passenger in one of the two trains will measure the speed of another train at 110 miles an hour. According to the theory of electromagnetism, the speed of light should be measured differently by an observer moving along than from another property. But in any experiment, as complicated and expensive as it was, had never measured the slightest difference. The speed of light was constant regardless of the motion of the observer. Einstein found that the last event was expected and compatible with the Electromagnetic Theory. As he wrote later, to reconcile the two seemingly incompatible observations needed “only” a new and more careful consideration the time factor. (6) .
Moving in the mathematical formulation of his theory, Einstein published his fourth article entitled “The inertia of a body depends on its energy? Mathematical note that the special theory of relativity has established the equivalence of mass and energy in which a quantity of matter with mass m has an energy content of E is equal to mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light. This relationship is usually written: E = mc ². The very idea was unbelievable. Even Einstein’s revolutionary frightened by the results of evaluations. Thus, the title of the thesis was: “Does the inertia of a body depends from the measure of the energy situation? “.
Characteristic is what he wrote in a friend: “The principle of relativity, in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations requires the mass is in direct measure of the energy contained in a body. The light transfers mass. This thought is amusing and has consequences, but I cannot know whether the good Lord smiles on the idea that I put on my head. Later, however, he and other scientists realized that, however unlikely it may seem, the formula E = mc ² was true. The understanding of the new theory and the identification of the author needed several years to be acceptable, but Einstein had won a position among leading European physicists who asked his advice more and more.(4)
In 1911 Einstein became a professor at the German University of Prague. In 1912 he returned to the Polytechnic Academy in Zurich. Having been recognized as one of the leading scientists of his time, Einstein did not stop to accept proposals. The most important came from Germany in 1914: based at the University of Berlin and research position in the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Thus, despite the independent character and political and social opposition to the militaristic regime of Germany of William II departed in April 1914 with his family in Berlin, who was then one of the most brilliant centers of European science.
In 1915 he published the final text of the “General Theory of Relativity.” This theory was confirmed experimentally by British scientists during the First World War, by measuring the deflection of light stars, where it passes through the gravitational field of large masses, such as that of the sun. This statement made Einstein famous and surprising that the theory of relativity, although tricky, even for physicists, became popular reading for large numbers of educated people who studied popularized descriptions. (8)
General Theory of Relativity
As a basic principle of “General Theory of Relativity” is the equivalence of accelerated systems of reference systems located within the gravity field. For verification of General Relativity, Albert Einstein proposed three experimental tests: 1. Measuring the deflection of light of stars and rays passing near the Sun. The result expected theoretically confirmed in 1919 by photographs of the position of stars near the solar disk during a total solar eclipse.
2. A theoretical prediction for the shift of the perihelion of Mercury. The perihelion of Mercury “directed” slowly around the sun, and Einstein explained this shift as a result of General Relativity confirmed again from the experiment.
3. The shift toward the red spectrum due to gravity. This test was in 1959 at Harvard University successfully and was the first high precision measurement of results of General Relativity.(6) . The next year the General Theory of Relativity’s gravity was confirmed by many other experiments. General relativity has stimulated the study of the universe as a dynamic entity, the topology of which is determined by the total mass-energy contained in it. .
In the general theory of relativity the tireless mind of Einstein discusses moves with changing speed. Einstein approached the issue in a way completely different from Newton. The great physicist of the 17th century had noticed something was a remarkable coincidence: gravity acting in the same way in all bodies, regardless of their mass. Einstein gave an explanation on this issue. The acceleration caused by gravity, he said, cannot be separated from the accelerations caused by other forces.
Einstein created using ten complex equations fields, General Theory of Relativity in 1916. The General Theory, in contrast to the Special Theory, had virtually no direct intellectual ancestor. Even today, the mental concepts of Einstein used by scientists. The surprise to Einstein’s equations provide actually bend light by gravity and the curve can be demonstrated by measuring the deflection of a light beam coming from a distant star and passing near the Sun. The light from the star ahead become visible only during a total extinct. Einstein predicted theoretically double the deviation from what could be predicted by Newton’s laws.(6)
Scientists were waiting for an opportunity to check again the General Theory of Relativity. I opportunity came in May 1919, when occurred a total eclipse of the Sun. Two independent scientific expeditions traveled to places where the eclipse was total. Both measured the same projected radius of curvature of the light of a distant star and were lost behind the darkened sun disk. The news not only impressed the scientists and the general public. Einstein had changed the whole structure of physics. Perceptions of centuries had proved incorrect and a new building was erected in their place, a building where space, time, matter and energy were interrelated and interact with strange exotic ways apart from any everyday perception.(6)
Einstein was the symbol of the new science image. Einstein was set at inaccessible heights. Everyone wanted to see him, to speak to him or even writing to him excessively. In 1921 got the Nobel Prize in physics, not for the Theory of Relativity, but the explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905.The next year Einstein traveled a lot. He supported Gandhi and for that reason signed the proclamation in 1925 of compulsory military service around the world. At 1932 accepted a position at Princeton University, which will be retained along with its location in Berlin. But as the Nazis rose to power, it was to never return to Germany. (4) .
Nazis in Power
In 1933, when the Nazis had already been elected to the German government began to insult Einstein as an agent of the Americans and Anglo-French, irritated by the fact that as an important representative of German science appeared at that time a Jew. This resulted that he has to leave the great investigator of the German Academy of Sciences, which had dominated, as always happens in totalitarian regimes. He left also of Germany, this time permanently, and he bound to America. One of his first acts in America with Hitler’s rise to power was to leave the German nationality. But he kept the Swiss and also asked the American. As Hitler confiscates his home, his books, and his deposits some people felt happy about it. A Berlin newspaper even wrote “Good News from Einstein does not return from America.(4)
The great Danish atomic physicist Niels Bohr, in 1939 brought to Einstein news that the German refugee physicist Lizeta Maitner had split the atom of uranium with slight mass loss which was converted into energy. The experiments, conducted in Copenhagen, was inspired by similar, who was less reliable, which had been a few months earlier by two German chemists, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strasman in Berlin. Bohr made the point that if he could be a controlled chain reaction of fission of uranium individuals, the result would be a mammoth explosion. Immediately researchers began to repeat these experiments bombarding uranium nuclei with neutrons. The result was to release a huge amount of energy discovery that led to the construction of the atomic bomb.
Einstein was mistrustful of such a possibility, but the laboratory experiments in the United States have demonstrated the feasibility of the idea. (8) With a war occurred in Europe and the fear that Nazi scientists may have manufactured the first “atomic bomb” Einstein was persuaded by his fellow scientists, mainly from Teller, to help fight for the manufacture of the bomb and write a letter to Franklin Roosevelt to influence him for “great vigilance and, if necessary, quick action” by the United States in research to build the atomic bomb. This recommendation resulted in the launch of Manhattan Research Program to build the atomic bomb. Eventually the fears of the scientific community for abusing, verified from the opposite side, after the atomic bomb was built under the direction of Oppenheimer used by the U.S. against Japan after the effective end of the war. (8) .
Although he didn’t took part in the work done in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and he didn’t know that he had manufactured nuclear fission bomb until the first dropped on Hiroshima in 1945, his name was closely associated with the arrival of the atomic age. The great irony for this idealistic thinker was that thanks to the famous axiom of mass-energy equivalence, humanity has seen the application, by creating individual and hydrocarbon cluster, which is the most destructive weapons that mankind ever known (2) .
Thereafter and until the end of his life, Einstein was active in the campaigning for disarmament, after the Soviet Union he had become nuclear power and began the “Cold War” he sign statements with other scientists, notably with B. Russell, who was the prime leader of the movements for peace and disarmament. His health began to collapse in 1949 and he was ready to accept his death in 1950, when he wrote that will leaving his writings in the Jewish University of Jerusalem. The last article signed but had nothing to do with science but with peace: it was a manifesto which was appealed to all nations not to use atomic energy. In 1952 he was offered the presidency of the newly established state of Israel, which refused saying, “equations for me are more interesting. Politics is for the present, the equations are for eternity”. (8) .
In 1955 he gives his last interview, which yielded credit to a Greek teacher, Constantine Karatheodory: “Gentlemen, you asked me to answer a thousand things, but not someone of you wanted to know who was my teacher, who showed and opened to me the way to the superior mathematical science, thought and research. I don’t want to bore you; I say simply, without details that my big teacher was the Greek Constantine Karatheodory, which I personally, the mathematical science, physics and the wisdom of our century, we owe everything”. The respect and esteem in the person of Constantine Karatheodory, who saw him as his teacher and his largely theorem of relativity that made him famous, is also due to him (8).
On April 18, 1955, Einstein died while sleeping at Princeton Hospital. Upon the table was the last unfilled statement written in honor of Independence Day of Israel. After his death, his mind was preserved in a jar by the physician Thomas Stolz Hare, who did the autopsy on his body. In 1999, an analysis of the brain showed that the Board is “responsible” for mathematical thought was a 15% greater than normal (8).