The Medicines Act 1968. This governs the control of medicines for human and veterinary use which includes the manufacture and supply of medicines – the Act defines three categories of medicine:- 1. Prescription Only Medicines (POM) These are available only from the chemist /pharmacy if prescribed by GP. 2. Pharmacy Medicines Available from the pharmacy but without a prescriptions 3. General Sales List (GSL) Medicines which may be bought from any shop without a prescriptions.
Human Medicines Regulations 2012
These Regulations set out a complex regime for the authorisation of medicinal products for human use, Manufacture, import, distribution, sale and supply of those products. For the labelling and advertising and for drug safety.
The Misuse Of Drugs Act 1971
This act creates three classes of controlled substances A, B, and C, and ranges of penalties for illegal or unlicensed possession and possession with the intent to supply are graded differently within each class. The lists of substances within each class can be amended by order so the Home Secretary can list new drugs and upgrade or downgrade or de-list previously controlled drugs with less of the bureaucracy and delay
The Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations 2001.
The Misuse of Drugs Act controls the export, import, supply and possession of dangerous or otherwise harmful drugs. In effect the Act largely renders unlawful all activities in the drugs controlled under the act except provided for under the regulations made under the Act. The drugs which are subject to the control of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 Health Act 2006
An Act to make provision of the prohibition of smoking in certain premises, places and vehicles and for amending the minimum age of persons to whom tobacco may be sold, to make provisions in relation to the prevention and control of health care associated infection, to make provisions in relation to the management and use of controlled drugs, to make provision in relation to the management and use of controlled drugs, to make provision in relation to the supervision of certain dealings with medicinal products and the running of pharmacy premises and about orders under the Medicines Act 1968 and orders amending that Act under the Health Act 1999 Health and Social Care Act 2008 (2012)
The main focus of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 was to create a new regulator whose aim and purpose was to provide registration and inspection of health and adult social care services together for the first time, with the aim of ensuring safety and quality of care for service users. The Care Quality Commission was established by statute, with enhanced powers to regulate primary care services, including hospitals, GP practices, Dental practices, Ambulance Services and Care Homes. These powers include failing registration, fines and even closing practices down which do not adhere to the Fundamental Standards in Quality and Safety. This cohesive approach has led to the CQC becoming one of the most powerful regulatory bodies in the UK.
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 made minor changes to the 2008 Act, but for the purposes of Health and Adult Social Care professionals looking at the registration and inspection regime, this only amounted to terminological clarification, a strengthening of the relationship between the CQC and Monitor and the establishment of The Healthwatch England Committee as part of the CQC. In addition to this the following institutions have been abolished: The Office of the Health Professions Adjudicator, The National Information Governance Board for Health and Social Care, The National Patient Safety Agency and The NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. The Controlled Drugs (Supervision and management And Use) Regulations 2006 The Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 divide controlled drugs (CDs) into five schedules corresponding to their theraputic usefulness and misuse potential. A Number of changes affecting the prescribing, record keeping and destruction of CDs have been introduced as a result of amendments to the Misuse Of Drugs Regulations 2001.
The Controlled Drugs (Supervision of Management and Use) Regulations 2006 came into effect on 1st January 2007. The Health and Safety at Work Act – The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is also referred to as JSWA, The HSW Act, The 1974 Act or HASAWA. This is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in Great Britain. The Health and Safety Executive with local authorities (and other enforcing authorities) is responsible for enforcing the Act and a number of other Acts and Statutory Instruments relevant to the working environment. Essential Standards (Regulation 13) 2008.2010 – This is a very small part in Regulation 13 as in, The registered pewrson must have suitable arrangements in place for obtaining and acting in the best interest of the individual. Where they are able to give valid consent to the examination, care, treatment and support they receive. Understand and know how to change any decisions about examination, care, treatment as in medication and support that has been previously agreed, can be confident that their human rights are respected and taken into account accordance with the consent of service users in relation to the care and treatment provided for them.
Data Protection Act 1998 – The Act’s definition of “personal data” covers any data that can be used to identify a living individual. Individuals can be identified by various means including their names and address, telephone number or email address. The Act applies only to data which is held or intended to be held on computers (equipment operating automatically in response to instructions given for that purpose) or held in a relevant filing system. Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 The occupational use of nano materials is regulated under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) is the law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health and includes nano materials. This covers controlled drugs as well The Environmental Protection Act 1990 & The Waste and Contaminated land Order 1997 – place a Duty Of Care on anyone who produces, collects, treats and disposes of waste.
This includes feminine hygiene, clinical, sharps, medicines, dental wastes, confidential waste or other waste to be recycled. The main principles of duty of care are about documenting the transfer of waste and checking up on anyone you transfer waste to (e.g. if they are a registered carrier of waste, if they are taking waste to suitably licensed / permitted sites). You should only use a Contractor who can provide proof of compliance with the legislation. Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 – The regulations replaced the special waste regulations 1996 in England and fully meet the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Directive.
The regulations remove the current need to pre-notify the Environment Agency before hazardous waste can be moved off site, and include a simpler method for tracking wastes once they have been moved. The include a new system to ensure that certain sites where hazardous waste is produced are notified to the Environment Agency. This will improve the whole regulation of the hazardous waste chain from source site to waste site. These regulations had previously amended certain clinical, medicinal and dental wastes they are now affected by the new Regulations as well as you must not mix hazardous with non-hazardous waste. Soft/hard Clinical waste, Sharps and pharmaceutical-sharpes
This waste may be classed as hazardous, due to its infectious nature. The Department of Health has produced important new guidance in Safe Management of Healthcare waste. Offensive waste-Sanitary, Incontinence, red lidded sharps.
Feminine hygiene, nappy and incontinence and fully discharged syringes are not classed as hazardous or special waste and do not require consignment notes. The Guideline policies and procedures in the Care Home I work in In my workplace, I have access
Common Types of Medication
Potential Side Effects
Analgesics. e.g. Paracetamol
Analgesics are used to relieve pain such as headaches
Addiction to these can happen if taken over a long period of time. Also, irritation of the stomach, liver damage and sleep disturbances as some analgesics contain caffeine.
Antibiotics. e.g. Amoxicillin
Antibiotics are used to treat infections that are caused by bacteria Diarrhoea, feeling sick and vomiting are the most common side effects. Some people get a fungal infection such as thrush after treatment with antibiotics for a longer period of time. More serious side-effects of antibiotics include kidney problems, blood disorders, increased sensitivity to the sun and deafness. However, these are rare.
Antidepressants. e.g. Citalopram
Antidepressants work by changing the chemical balance in the brain and that can in turn change the psychological state of the mind such as depression Common side effects include blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, increased appetite, nausea, restlessness, shaking or trembling and difficulty sleeping. Other side effects include, dry mouthy, constipation and sweating Anticoagulants. e.g. Warfarin
Anticoagulants are used to prevent blood clotting
A side effect common to all anticoagulants is the risk of excessive bleeding (Haemorrhages) This is because these medicines increase the time that it takes clots to form. If clots take too long to form, then you can experience excessive bleeding. Side effects may include passing blood in your urine or faeces, severe bruising, prolonged nosebleeds (Lasting longer than 10 Minutes) Blood in your vomit, coughing up blood unusual headaches, sudden sever back pain and difficulty breathing or chest pain. Some Side effects with warfarin include rashes, diarrhoea, nausea (Feeling sick) and vomiting Identify Medication Which Demands The Measurement of Specific Physiological Measurements
Describe The Common Adverse Reactions To Medication, How Each Can Be Recognised And the Appropriate Action(s) Required
Unexpected adverse reactions can happen for any drug potentially that an individual is taking. For example one individual I work a person may have an adverse reaction to penicillin, anaphylactic shock; the signs of this are the swelling of for example the lips or face, a skin rash and the individual may also have breathing difficulties. This is why it is important that all information about an individual is recorded in full in their care plan and on the MAR sheet.
Other severe adverse reactions could include a fever and skin blistering; if adverse reactions are not treated they could fatal. These usually occur within an hour of the medications being administered. Sometimes adverse reactions can develop a few weeks after and may cause damage to the kidneys or liver.
If a service user at my place of work happened to have an adverse reaction to a medication, I would notify the Nurse on duty and/or House Manager. It would be up to them to contact the local GP for advice, and if necessary to make arrangements to get the service user to hospital for treatment.
Explain the Different Routes Of Medicine Administration
Routes Of Administration
Inhalers and nebulisers are used for individuals who have respiratory conditions as these deliver the medication directly to the lungs. Conditions such as Asthma and COPD Oral
This medication is taken via the mouth. This can be in the form of tablets and capsules. If am individual finds it difficult to swallow tablets oral medication is also available in liquids, suspensions and syrups. Sub lingual medications are for example when tablets are placed under the tongue to dissolve quickly Transdermal
Transdermal medications come in the form of patches that are applied to the skin normally to the chest or upper arm. They work by allowing the medication to be released slowly and then absorbed. For example, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) patches and nicotine patches.
Topical medications come in the form of creams and gels and are applied directly to the skin surface usually to treat skin conditions. Instillation Instillation medications come in the form of drops or ointments and can be instilled via the eyes, nose or ears. Drops can be used for ear or eye infections. Nose sprays are used for treating for example hay fever.
Intravenous medication enters directly into the veins and absorbed quickly. This route can only be done by a doctor or trained nurse
Rectal medications are absorbed very quickly. Suppositories are available and are given into the rectum. Pessaries are given into the vagina. Only after training can these medications be administered.
Subcutaneous medications are injected just beneath the skin i.e. insulin is administered in this way. Only after training can these medications be administered.
Intramuscular medication is injected directly into the large muscles in the body, i.e. the legs or bottom. This route can only be done by a doctor or trained nurse.