The data transmission can be done through the presentation layer in a secured manner. This can be done by using the various encryption methods as well as the compression methods. The presentation layer also takes care of the compatibility issues between two devices of different types of operating systems like Windows, Macintosh etc. The network layer deals with the internal and the external IP addresses. In case, if the IP address is internal, the Network Address Translation (NAT) is used to convert the internal address to external addresses (Heywood, 2001).
The internal and external IP addresses are used so as to use the IP addresses effectively since the IP addresses used in today’s scenario are those of IP version 4 with 32 bit addressing mechanism as compared to the future IPv6 mechanism that would avoid the loss of data and also enable better compatibility and addressing of the computer systems with efficient transmission of the data across the peer networks. The IPv4 system is now growing scarce of the addresses that can be used and so it is getting divided into the internal and external addresses. This division is performed by the network administrator.
It seems that if the NAT is not being used in the hospital then it should be deployed keeping in mind that the horizons of work of the hospital shall expand as time passes by. The data records are entered when the patient enters the hospital. This is carried out by the IT and Data Center. Once the patient gets admitted, the human resource department takes over and the nurses and ward boys who form a part of the human resources take the patient to the clinical section consisting of either the ward or the ICU or the operating rooms depending upon the sensitivity of the patients.
If the patient is not serious and has just come for a regular check up then he or she is led to the doctor’s outpatient examining room where the patients are examined and if the ailments still persist they are treated. The personal details of the patient are recorded in the computer of the concerning department that is well furnished with the LAN and other such facilities that enable the transfer of information to the particular patients record.
The ailments of the patient and the medicines prescribed with due care that the secrecy of such records are maintained taking HIPAA into consideration. The loss of any information about any patient can result into a major loss of the hospital. So, it is very important to keep a backup of the information of the patients. This backup may be kept in any external storage device or an extra server system that is exclusively for keeping the back up of such sensitive data records.
But then, once again, the question of compromise of this data server arises. So to address this problem we deploy encryption standards. The senior management of the hospital and the finance department take the decision regarding the monetary issues. Whether the patient is to be continued in the hospital is decided by the concerning doctor who is treating the patient, but looking at other side of the coin, the patient’s bill should have been cleared till the present date in order to continue in the hospital if such a thing is deemed necessary.
In the presence of a condition where the patient is not in a condition to pay his bills and is undergoing treatment that cannot be stopped keeping humanitarian outlook into mind and also the view that hospital is not just business but also a great social service, the Senior Management of the Hospital decides whether the patient should continue in the hospital with the recommendation of the doctor and also the consent of the patient’s family members or the patient himself.
The internal and external network should be made compatible with their speed of sending and receiving information. The ICMP and IGMP protocols come into play in this condition (Rhee, 2003). These protocols tell whether the packets or frames sent to the destination are reaching or have been dropped on the way. These protocols tell us whether there is speed compatibility between the external and internal networks or whether the network has experienced a loss of frames due to the TTL expiry that is the time to live of the frames.
The congestion control algorithms should be brought into play in places like hospitals because loss of one single piece of information can result in major discrepancies in the contained information and can result in the hospital losing the personal information of the patients that were once admitted into it. Deployment of ICMP is done in the transport layer. The ICMP is used as a protocol that would foster the Internet Protocol and deal with its problems of congestion and packet loss in the network.
The data would travel in the network with flow of information from one department to the other with the network bridge and the Ethernet card supporting the flow of information in an effective manner. The data travelling being sensitive as the network is sensitive should travel in the path that uses the Secure Socket Layer and the Transport Layer Security (TLS and SSL) for the purpose of adequate security. The characteristic property of this is that the entire network gets into the ambit of security because the network cannot be compromised.
The network itself requires encryption so as to prevent the man-in-the-middle attack that involves eavesdropping in between the message flow paths and also stopping the attacker from any other brute force attack so as to prevent the leakage of information or any other passive or active attack in the network. Security features should be enabled in not just the server but also all the computer systems deployed in the hospital so as to keep the entire network secure and not just the IT and Data Center because the entire network experiences flow of information from and to the IT Department.
This should be done so that the passage of information to and from the data center so that the sensitivity of data should be maintained even in the intranet. Also, the BCP and DRP solutions shall be maintained by maintaining a server that would allow the recovery of lost data if any server crashes and the entire data would be recoverable in such a case.
Reference Surhone Lambert M. , Timpledon Miriam T., Marseken Susan F, OSI Model: Protocol (computing) 2009, illustrated, Betascript Publishers, ISBN 6130324510, 9786130324513. Heywood Drew, Ahmad Zubair, Drew Heywood’s Windows 2000 Network Services 2001, illustrated, Sams Publishing, ISBN 0672317419, 9780672317415. Rhee Man Young, Internet security: cryptographic principles, algorithms and protocols 2003, illustrated, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0470852852, 9780470852859