1. The musculoskeletal system includes bones, joints, skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The response this exercise does to the body is increased blood supply for muscles to work for longer and harder when exercising, muscle pliability will also develop as regular muscles are being used and developed making them stronger overall. Increased respiratory rate, increased fuel metabolism, increased oxygen consumption and also increased muscle temperature these are some of the features that will take place over exercising for a short time. Additionally Increased levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide arise from muscles overloading resulting in the muscles being able to be pushed and worked at a higher intensity for longer.
Another response the musculoskeletal system does is develop in range of movement as muscle functions are being worked at harder making all tendons and ligaments looser enabling them to be more flexible. Micro tears will also take place in the musculoskeletal system as muscles are being overworked and developed resulting in fibers developing and adapting to suit muscles. Range of movement, muscle fibre
2. The acute responses in the musculoskeletal system are an increase in blood flow which causes the muscles to be used more frequently and are being used to work at a faster rate due to oxygen reaching these specific muscles efficiently this will increase ability and range of movement. However temperature will also increase due to overloading in the musculoskeletal system making the athlete become fatigued. Muscle pliability is when energy is used in the muscles during exercise which then produces lactic acid and causes strain and weight to the working muscles, in order to remove this through stretching needs to be applied so muscles can return to normal pliability.
Therefore stretching removes lactic acid and makes the muscle more pliable to ranges of movements. When exercising muscles sometimes they can be put under stress which then can lead to micro tears inside muscle fibers therefore opposing stress to the damaged muscle and then also leading to swelling throughout the muscular tissues which then can later develop nerve damage and this is for seen as restricting the athletes ability and bodily function. Rest and recovery is necessary for reparation to this micro tear causing a stronger muscle for less risk of it occurring again this is important as reoccurring injuries can damage the muscle further and seriously affect the athletes overall ability. Phosphocreatine,lactic acid,energy continuum.
3. Pliability – This is related to how stretchy the connective tissue and muscles are. Viscous – The measure of resistance of a fluid. ATP-PC – Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the usable form of chemical energy for muscular activity. It is stored in most cells, particularly in muscle cells. Other forms of chemical energy, such as that available from the foods we eat, must be transferred into ATP form before they can be utilized by the muscle cells. Alactic System- This energy system is the first one that arises from exercising and it is the dominant source of energy coming from the muscles. High intensity exercises that lasts for 10 seconds maximum.
The alactic energy is the main energy source used for a 100 m sprint. This system provides energy fast and efficient, oxygen is not required for this system and lactic acid doesn’t build up. This could be used in training sessions to increase speed as a lack of oxygen is taken in when doing anaerobic exercise; however this will improve the athlete’s oxygen depth and overall power. Aerobic system- This is used in the first few minutes of all exercise no matter what sport or activity. The aerobic system is used for long term exercise and is not sufficient for explosive power like the alactic system. There are two main systems within anaerobic metabolism, which are the ATP-PC system and the lactic acid system. For a games player this is the most common energy system as it requires a lot of oxygen to circulate around the body.
This would be used in training sessions regular and can massively increases cardiovascular fitness and athlete’s wellbeing, for example aerobic training could be used at the start of the season to try and regain fitness levels. Acute responses to the cardiovascular system are an increase in blood pressure due to blood becoming more dilated .Also heart rate responds by increasing when involved in exercise this is vital as blood needs to be pumped around the body to all muscles needed.in addition to this vasodilation and vasoconstriction take place as a cardiovascular responses, these responses are used to either open or close blood vessels when needed to prevent or increase blood flow around the working body. Respiratory responses are also acute responses as their duties involves increasing breath rate and depth in order to circulate oxygen around the body to demanding muscles. Another acute response to the respiratory system is increasing levels of tidal volume which is the amount of oxygen taken in for every breath during exercise. Heart rate response,activity response,vasoconstriction,vasodilation.
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