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Complexometric determination of water hardness

Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the hardness of a sample of water (#89). Water hardness can be evaluated by an acid-base neutralization titration. (When an acid and a base are placed together, they react to neutralize the acid and base properties, producing a salt.) From the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction theory, the H+ cation of the acid combines with the OH- anion of the base to form water. In this titration experiment, there are no definitive acidic or basic agents being evaluated. This requires the use of the Lewis acid-base theory. Instead of defining acid-base reactions in terms of protons or other bonded substances, the Lewis definition defines a base (referred to as a Lewis base) to…