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Acid Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Factors That Affect the Rate of Reaction of Peroxidase

Purpose: To determine the effect of various factors on the rate of reaction between an enzyme andits substrate, and also to determine the optimal ranges under which the enzyme activity ismaximized. Also to determine whether saline and alcohol are inhibitors or activators Hypothesis: PH factor prediction: I predict that as the pH increases so the activity of the enzyme willincrease until it reaches optimum pH range (pH 7) because the enzyme is less denaturedwhen it reaches the preferred pH level, and after this it will decrease because the activesite will change in shape and it will no longer accept substrates.Temperature factor prediction: I predict as the temperature increases, the enzymeactivities will increase because there is more energy to speed up…

Science Investigatory Project

Abstract The pineapple is one of the leading products in the Philippines, as it thrives in tropical climates. However, the pineapple peelings have low commercial value and are therefore merely thrown away, contributing to the Philippines waste problem. This study entitled “Saccharification of Pineapple Ananas comosus peelings through Dilute Acid Hydrolysis” was conducted to know the concentration of sugar content which can be used for other purposes like bioethanol. Three samples were used, each sample was composed of two trials; S1T1 (60 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S1T2 (60 degree Celsius for 60 min.), S2T1 (70 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S2T2 (70 degree Celsius for 60 min.), S3T1 (80 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S3T2 (80 degree Celsius for…

Determination of the Valency of Magnesium

To study the quantitative relationship between the amount of reactant and products of a reaction. A known starting mass of magnesium and the measured collection of hydrogen gas will be used to determine the reaction stoichiometry and the valency of magnesium. Introduction: In Chemistry, stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationship between amounts of reactants and products of a reaction (that is, how many moles of A react with a given number of moles B). Stoichiometry refers to the relative number of atoms of various elements found in chemical substances and is often useful in characterizing a chemical reaction. In this section, a known starting mass of magnesium and the measured collection of hydrogen gas will be used to…

Science Neutralizing Lakes

Part 1 – Design a strategy for neutralizing Fish Lake What do I know? (What do I remember about the neutralization reaction) Neutralization is when an acid and base are mixed together to me an ionic compound or which are 7 on the pH scale or pure water, it is also when a base and acid are mixed to make it in a neutral state. What am I wondering? (What are your rough ideas to fix an acidified lake?) I will be finding a base that will work the most effective way, also I will find a base that can fix a large amount of acidified lake water with a base that can neutralize it with less then the acidified…

Experiment 4 Rdr – Chemical Equilibrium

Iron-Silver Equilibrium In the first phase of the experiment, iron sulfate was mixed with silver nitrate, and the reaction produced solid silver and iron nitrate, which is formally written as, Fe2+ (aq) + Ag+ (aq) ⇄ Ag (s) + Fe3+ (aq) The mixture was then placed in a centrifuge in order for the solid silver to settle and separate from the supernate. The supernate was then tested for the presence of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Ag+ by placing K3Fe(CN)6, KSCN and HCl to 3 separate samples of the supernate. The result of the tests was as follows: 1.Addition of K3Fe(CN)6 After K3Fe(CN)6 was added to the supernate, a Prussian blue precipitate was formed, more formally written as, Fe2+ (aq) + Fe(CN)63-…

Factors Affecting the Rate of Catalase Activity

Factors affecting the rate of catalase activity The extent at which environmental factors affect the rate of catalase activity was discovered in this lab. The assay system, in which a filter paper disc was dipped into the enzyme and submerged using a stirring rod in a test tube filled with 20mL of hydrogen peroxide, was used to test several enzyme factors. As the saturation of hydrogen peroxide increased the rate of reaction increased as well. When the enzyme concentration increased the rate of catalase activity increased too. When catalase was subjected to an increase of temperature changes, the rate of reaction increased. Once the protein denatured around 100ºC the catalase activity decreased. Catalase operated with a high efficiency when the…

Effect of Ph on Food Preservatives

Sodium Benzoate is a common food preservative used in food products such as jams and jellies, soft drinks, pickles, condiments etc and in tinned products in the market. This experiment aimed to determine whether benzoic acid is formed from it’s superior soluble form sodium benzoate in stomach acid, which is simulated by HCl (pH=2). It has been seen that at a low optimum pH, i.e. in the presence of sufficient hydrochloric acid, sufficient benzoic acid is yielded. The percentage yield is determined from the calculations of the theoretical (stoichiometric) calculations and the actual yield from the reaction. Also throughout the experiment, some basic laboratory operations such as measuring mass and volume, separating solids from liquids by vacuum filtration and drying…

Chemistry Honors Titration Lab

A Titration is a process of the concentration of one solution being determined by its reaction with either a standard solution or a known quantity of solid dissolved in solution. It may also be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown acid or base. Purpose: I. Prepare a standard solution of sodium hydroxide II. Standardize a sodium hydroxide solution by using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) III. When given whether the acid is monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic , determine the molar mass of the unknown organic acid. IV. Calculate the Molarity of the Soft drink. Materials: * 50 mL Buret * Beaker * Erlenmeyer Flask * Sodium Hydroxide * Water * Balance * Unknown Acids (A, B, C) *…

Homework Assignment

Use the information presented in this module along with additional outside research to answer the questions: 1. Describe how applied microbiology is used to improve aspects of life and the environment. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.3). These are all of the things not visible to the human eye. With the study of microbiology, it enables us to find things such as viruses and bacteria. This is helpful because sickness and certain outbreaks can be prevented. In turn, this creates a safer more stable environment. 2. Describe how the table of elements is ordered and discuss four common elements in living organisms. Elements are ordered on the Table by their atomic number. This is…

Which Antacid Neutralizes Acid the Best?

Description This experiment was conducted to find out how effective different types and brands of antacids are at neutralizing acid. I also looked at the cost of each product in order to determine if my hypothesis would be correct. The experiment was done using 4 brands of antacid, Pepto-Bismol, Gaviscon, Tums and Tagamet. Hypothesis All the antacids will neutralize different amounts of acid but the most expensive one will be able to neutralize the most acid. Overview Antacids Antacids are a type of medication that can be purchased at pharmacies to cure heartburn and gastritis. An antacid works by neutralizing the acid in your stomach and increasing pH levels. Our stomach is normally at pH levels of around 2 to…

Acids, Bases, and Neutrals

Experiment Acids, Bases, and Neutrals Problem Are common house-hold products pH balanced and neutral? Information Gathered pH measures how acidic or alkaline a solution is. The pH scale ranges from 0-14. Solutions that range from 0-6 are considered to be acidic. Solutions that are on the acidic end of the scale are low in pH, high in hydrogen ion, and low in hydroxyl ions. An acid has a sour taste, hence, will react to metal and will be corrosive; therefore, they are considered as an electrolyte because it conducts an electrical charge. Such examples of acids that are hydrochloric acid, citric acid and vinegar. Solutions that are bases on the pH scale range from 8-14. Bases are high in pH,…

A Separation and purification Scheme

Abstract: There are millions of different organic compounds. Most of them are found in mixtures and in order to achieve a pure form they need to be separated, isolated, and purified. However, there are endless numbers of possible mixtures, which make it impossible to have a pre-designed procedure for every mixture. So chemists often have to make their own procedures. The purpose of this experiment was to prepare the student to the real world by them designing their own procedure which will help them understand the techniques of separation and purification better. The goal was to extract two of the components of the mixture that consisted of 50% benzoic acid, 40% benzoin, and 10% dibromobenzene. The benzoic acid was extracted…

Lab Enzymes

Introduction How does changing the surroundings of enzymes affect their reaction rate? The purpose of the experiment is to determine how different abiotic conditions affect the rate at which enzymes accelerate/cause reactions In this lab students measured the height of the foam after catalysis between catalase (enzyme) and 7 other (solutions) to determine which solution had the fastest reaction rate.. The control variable of the experiment would be the solution of only hydrogen peroxide, water, and catalase. The independent variables of the experiment were the abiotic factors such as PH level, temperature, and the amount of salt within the environment. The dependent variable of the experiment would be the height of the foam(product) after each change in environment. If I…

The Effectiveness of Distilled Water

Chapter I Introduction This chapter includes the prevailing problem situation based on observations. also, the objectives, scope and limitation, significance of the study, definition of terms and conceptual framework are included. I. Background of the study Students in various parts of the Dasmariñas are finding difficulties in procuring proper and economical equipment for their experiments and lessons in the field of science, particularly in Chemistry and in Biology. Examples of those equipment include acid-base indicators like Litmus papers and the likes. These substances are used to indicate, if not measure the acidity and the basicity of a substance under question. For example, in the field of Biology, Litmus paper is used to find or determine the pH of urine, blood,…

Back Titration

1. SYNOPSIS The purpose of this experiment is to use the back titration method to determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste. Instead of using standard titration methods where an acid is titrated directly using a standard solution of a base, back titration is used because the sample to be analysed, CaCO3 does not dissolve in water. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are the reagents used in this experiment. The precise measured amount of HCl is added to the weighted portion of toothpaste which is CaCO3. When the reaction between HCl and CaCO3 is completed, the excess HCl is back-titrated against NaOH until the reaction reaches the end point and the indicator changes from pink to orange. Hence, the…

How the PH changes during a titration experiment

Having a higher concentration of alkali will mean that there will be more molecules closer together for the acid to collide with. This will speed up the reaction as collision theory suggests that molecules have to collide to react and if there are more molecules to collide with the reaction will happen faster as there is a higher chance of a collision. Volume of alkali An increase in volume would mean that the neutralisation would take longer as you would need an equal amount of the same strength acid in order to neutralise it. Furthermore in collision theory if there is a bigger space that the molecules are in then the molecules are less likely to collide which means that…

Aldol reaction

In this preparative lab, an aldol (trans-p-anisalacetophenone) was produced from the reaction between p-anisaldehyde and acetophenone with the presence sodium hydroxide. The reaction also showed the importance of an enolate and the role it played in the mechanism. Sodium hydroxide acts as a catalyst in this experiment and is chosen because of its basic conditions and pH. The acetophenone carries an alpha hydrogen that has a pKa between 18 and 20. This alpha hydrogen is acidic because of its location near the carbonyl on acetophenone. When the sodium hydroxide is added, it deprotonates the hydrogen and creates an enolate ion. This deprotonation creates a nucleophilic carbon that can attack an electrophilic carbon (like a parent carbon of a carbonyl). This…

Titration Lab Discussion

Like any titration, neutralization titrations depend on a chemical reaction between the unknown solution and a standard reagent. The point of chemical equivalence is indicated by a chemical indicator or an instrumental measurement. When the color changes to the specified color, the titration has reached endpoint. The mole ratio and volume relates the concentration of the solutions. The more the number of moles of the base is used the more number of moles are needed to neutralize. To increase the number of moles you can increase the concentration or decrease the volume. If we take an overview of the reaction, the protons from the HCl moved to the NaOH or the HCl donated H+ ions to the solution and NaOH…

Titration: Identification of an Unknown Amino Acid Biochemistry

Abstract Water is important substance for all living organisms. The physical and chemical properties of water play a central role in biological structure and function of the organism. The ionization ability of water to form H+ and OH- ions make it very unique. The hydrogen-ion concentration of biological system is usually preferred as the pH system, which determines the pH level of dilute aqueous solutions. In this laboratory, the data collected from the experiment will be used to graph the titration curves which help to identify an unknown amino acid. Introduction Amino acids are simple monomers which are strung together to form proteins. Amino acids play a key cellular role in structure and function. Proteins themselves participate in nearly every…

Handling a Sulphuric Acid Spill

There has been a spill of concentrated sulphuric acid at the chemical plant where I work at as the Safety Engineer. In this report, I will explain what Sulfuric Acid is, the health risks and hazards associated with it, the safety precautions that should be taken and how the spill should be handled. Sulfuric Acid, H2SO4, also commonly known as battery acid or vitriol, is one of the top products in the chemical industry, with 40 million tons produced annually in the U.S. It is a colourless, odourless and oily mineral acid that is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sulfuric acid is extremely hazardous; it reacts with water violently and exothermically and as a result, is highly corrosive. Safety…

Geography Internal Assessment

First, the channel width (A. on figure 3) was measured. This was done by using a tape measure. The tape measure was held tight from bank to bank, along the water surface. Starting from 0 on the tape, the depth of the water in centimeters was measured. Once the width was taken, that measurement was taken and divided by ten to get x cm. Every x cm (B. on figure 3) a depth measurement was taken. The depth was measured using a ranging pole. A tape measure was take held across the banks, and the ranging pole was put into the river as deep as it could go, every x cm. Once the ranging pole was in the river as…

Effect of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide

Introduction: ((Carbon Dioxide is a greenhouse gas. It is everywhere ranging from our bodies to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced in living organisms as a result of cellular respiration (glucose + oxygen –>carbon dioxide + water + energy). It occurs in high concentrations in the tissues in our body. It then diffuses in the circulatory system where it may be carried in our blood))3. When this blood combines with water and then dissolves, Carbonic acid (hydrogen carbonate ions + hydrogen ions). are formed in the red blood cells which are then carried in the plasma. ((CO2 + H2O –> H2CO3))1. This dissolved carbon dioxide can easily change the pH of water. This carbonic acid is toxic to cells and…

Effect of pH Levels on the Growth of Bean Plants

Different pH level may affect the growth and development of the plants. Certain key words include: pH level, germination, acidity, osmosis and diffusion. This experiment examines the effects of different pH level of vinegar on the growth of bean plants. Materials used in this experiment consist of: water (pH 6), vinegar with the pH level of 3, 4 and 5 (each one were made before experiment), beans, soil, and pots. Eight bean plants were planted, two were watered with pH 6 and the other ones were each watered with pH 5, pH 4 and pH 3 vinegar. The results were that beans watered with pH 3 shrunk and began to die, pH 4 beans were growing at a slow rate,…

The Influence of pH on the Activity of Catalase Enzyme

INTRODUCTION Enzymes are vitally important for every living organism, because without them the reactions within the cells would occur to slow to sustain life. However there are many factors which affect the rate of enzymes reactions. One of them is pH, which influence on the enzyme activity will be the subject of this investigation. Catalase of potato tuber cells will be the enzyme used in the experiment. RESEARCH QUESTION What is the influence of different values of pH on the activity of catalase in potato tuber cells? VARIABLES Independent: potato discs treatment (placing them into buffer solutions of different pH values, mixed with hydrogen peroxide)Dependent: the activity of the catalase, reflected by the rate at which oxygen is evolved, measured…

Characterization of Nucleic Acids

This paper is an analysis conducted on Nucleic Acids through a variety of tests specifically, Dische, Murexide, Wheeler-Johnson and Phosphate Tests in order to exemplify structural features of nucleic acids as well as identify the principle involved in each chemical test. Different procedures and different test compounds were applied, and results were noted as for changes in colors of precipitates or solutions. For Dische Test, light blue was obtained for RNA and dark violet for DNA. For Murexide Test, a yellow layer was obtained with a mixture of red color and eventually became yellow or orange after addition of warm water. For John-Wheeler Test, a violet precipitate was obtained and lastly for Phosphate Test, a yellow precipitate was obtained. Keywords:…

Acids, Bases and Natural Indicators

Nowadys, indicators have become technologically advanced and can be used for the main purpose of indicating whether something is acidic, basic or neutral. This is possible because in solutions of different pH, the colour of the inidcator will change simultaneously with pH change. This is made possible by pigments in the indicators. Hand made indicators include universal indicator, methyl orange, phenolphthalein and many more. Acids and bases are diverse in this world. They are everywhere ranging from foods to trees to rocks and many more. Indicators can be used to determine whether these substances are acidic, basic or neutral. Manufactured indicators are one type and the second type is natural indicators. Believe it or not, the majority of fruits, vegetables…

Biologically Important Molecules Introduction

Organic compounds found in organisms include: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Each play an integral part in biological systems, for instance, carbohydrates are the main source of fuel for organisms. Proteins contribute to the structure of organisms, lipids make up membranes of cells, and nucleic acids make up DNA and RNA for carrying the genetic code. Scientists have established different ways to indicate presence of these compounds, one way is to test for these various compounds via solution tests. Scientists have established terms for evaluation. The terms include positive and negative control. Positive control contains the variable for which the test will react positively. A negative control on the other hand does not contain the variable and thus will…

Isolation of organic compounds

1. 2.07 g of the mixture of naphthalene and benzoic acid was weighed accurately on a balance. The mixture was then dissolved in 40 ml dichloromethane and the solution was poured into a separatory funnel. 2. 20 ml of aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the dichloromethane. A stopper was placed on the separatory funnel and was shaken and pressure was frequently released. The 2 liquids separated into clear layers and the lower layer (dichloromethane layer) was tapped into an Erlenmeyer flask. The aqueous layer was placed into a 400 ml beaker. The dichloromethane was placed back in the separatory funnel. 3. The dichloromethane was extracted with 2 more fresh portions of sodium bicarbonate solution. The bicarbonate solutions are…

Acid Base Extraction of Organic compound

Acid-base extraction is the process of purifying of an organic acid and an organic base of an organic mixture. It is the procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extraction to purify the acid and the base from the mixture based on their chemical properties and solubility of the molecular and ionic forms. Acid- base extraction is commonly performed during the work-up of a chemical reaction. The acid-base extraction procedure can also be used to separate very-weak acids from stronger acids and very-weak bases from stronger bases as long as the difference of their pKa (or pKb) constants is large enough. The major limitation of this reaction is that it is not possible to separate chemically similar acids or similar base with a…

Chemical Reactions

Introduction In this paper you learn about the reactions that occur between backing soda and lemon juice. We will also describe what is occurring with the molecules on a molecular level. Lastly we will explain what chemical bonds are formed and or broken when lemon juice and backing soda. Observations of the Reactants When most people hear baking soda they think of the bright orange box sitting in their pantry or refrigerator soaking up the foul odors that have come about from the onions or fish. Some may think of pancakes or baking a cake. Baking powder is a fine white substance with the consistency of powdered sugar. Baking soda is a chemical base. Another substance most people do not…