The history of human civilization is a record of the achievements of science, amongst other things. We have been observing great scientific achievements since the dawn of the 20th century. But the invention which has brought about a revolutionary change in the world is computer. The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the 20th century, and hinted at in the centuries prior. The progression, from mechanical inventions and mathematical theories towards the modern concepts and machines, formed a major academic field and the basis of a massive worldwide industry. The man behind the thought of this great invention was a British professor of mathematics named Charles Babez. In 1830, he designed a machine named “Analytical Engine” which had common sides with the present structure of computer. Then step by step, computer got its current shape through various procedure and research.
In terms of working criteria, there are three kinds of computers. These are analog, digital and hybrid. The analog computer works by chronologically counting of shifting figures and the digital computer works by using mathematical methods and counting electric waves. The hybrid computer is a combination of the above two; it works by using both characteristics of analog and the digital. According to the size, space and working capacity, there are four variations of digital computer: super computer, mainframe computer, mini-frame computer and micro computer. The total figure of computer is divided into three main units: input unit, central processing unit (CPU), output unit. The input unit receives the data and delivers to memory, memory stores it for the time being and the arithmetic logic unit defines it and directs to process it with necessary programs and delivers the result to output unit to present and memory stores the result permanently if needed.
The whole procedure is executed by the control unit. The arithmetic logic unit, control unit and memory constitute the CPU. The fields of application of computer are uncountable. From space research to personal amusement, each and every fact of human race is being influenced by this machine. Governmental issues, commercial vocations, scientific analysis, educational tasks and various works are being operated and controlled automatically by its graft. Now, scientists are trying to invent artificial intelligence and if that’ll possible, computer will be substitute of human. There is no argument that computer has done incalculable benefits to man. But as it’s a machine, it can also be operated against mankind. So, it depends on us to use it in a proper way and get the best output from it and have a life of comfort, easy and peace.