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Achievement standard 91329 study exemplar Essay

Anaerobic training is used to enhance performance in non-endurance activities to promote strength, speed and power and also to strengthen muscles in a shorter amount of time. Anaerobic training triggers two main energy systems: the high energy phosphate systems, (adenine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP)) and the anaerobic glycolysis system.

High energy phosphates are used in small doses within muscle cells and the anaerobic glycolysis system is used in the absence of oxygen inside the cells or when ATP is needed in higher quantities but it cannot be produced fast enough during aerobic metabolism. These energy systems will help to build strength within the muscles and will contribute to a better health and well-being. Demonstrate in-depth understanding on the bodies’ physiological responses from participating in the session.

During my training my body was exerting a lot of ATP around my body to give me energy to do the workout. I worked between 75-90% of my max heart rate because the workouts I was doing were very short but intense which meant I had to work harder to get the maximum amount of ATP out of my body. I noticed that after my workouts I was fatigued because the ATP energy within the muscle cells around the area of work had been all used up.

Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the strength and weaknesses of the application of the method of training. You should show an interrelationship between the biophysical principles.

Anaerobic training is really good in context to the various sports I participate in because in netball, basketball and touch you are not always on the move but you have to exert small bursts of energy at a time e.g. following the opposition on defence, dribbling the ball towards the hoop and running with the touch ball. The small exerts of energy are using a high build-up of ATP within the muscle cells. Being able to keep working through the pain of working at a 75-90% max heart rate helps to burn fat faster and build muscle.

Task 3: Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the application of biophysical principles.

(a)Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the application of three methods of training (methods of training may include: continuous, fartlek, circuit, interval (short and long), flexibility, resistance and plyometric) you have used in your training programme.

Method of training: Short interval training
I used short interval training in my training programme because I wanted to challenge myself and improve my health and well-being in a short amount of time. I order to do this I had to work between a 75-90% max heart rate so that my muscles and heart were working as hard as they could to produce maximum physical results. I decided to work at a 2:1 work/rest ratio so my body had enough rest to produce more ATP and so my heart rate can lower a bit so I have to work harder to build it up again. I tried to move as little as possible during rest time so my body has enough time to lower as low as it possibly can before rising again to the same heart rate.

During my training I noticed that I was talking to myself various times in a workout telling myself to keep going and reminding myself of the number of reps that were left. This showed that my brain was also being trained along with my muscles and the brain is one of the hardest muscles to train in the body. Method of training: Plyometric training

I used plyometric training to build power and speed in my legs by speed skipping and double under skipping. This type of training is important to building power and speed in my lower body by pushing my muscles to move from extension to contraction in a short time at an explosive rate.

When doing double under skipping I experienced very small shocks on landing in which my hip, knee and ankle extensors endured a powerful eccentric contraction. When this happened my muscles were forced to tense. The eccentric contraction is then quickly switched to the isometric (when I stopped moving downwards) and then the concentric contractions, in a rapid time frame which is repeated many times.

Isometric contraction always occurs in the transition from the eccentric to the concentric contraction, but in this rapid transition it is practically eliminated. This is builds strength in legs which can be important to runners when leaving a starting block. The reason why I used this method of training was mainly to build strength in my legs which is beneficial to my lower body. Method of training: Fartlek training

Fartlek training was used in my training programme to provide variation to the normal training I did. This placed stress on my aerobic and anaerobic systems and I allowed me to work as fast or as slow as I needed to. Between the high intensity running, I did easy and less strenuous jogging to recover for the next high intensity sprint and I could alter the periods of time that I did high intensity and low intensity running which was a bonus to myself.

The benefits of the fartlek training were that I could alter the intensity level to suit myself and it was effective to have the two intensities put into one workout. Having this choice to alter the workout did not stop me from pushing myself though. Fartlek training helped to strengthen my legs and improve my breathing so I could maintain at a high speed for a longer period of time.

Choose four principles of training. Principles of training may include the F.I.T.T principle (frequency, intensity, time, type), as well as specificity, progression, reversibility, rest and variety. Demonstrate in depth how and why these were applied to the methods of training in your programme. Principle of training: Intensity

How did you apply it to your training programme?
I specified the intensity of the workout on my training programme before I started working out so I knew to work at a high intensity or a low intensity.

To work out my max heart rate I used the max heart rate chart on the wall in the weights room and I double checked it by using the max heart rate formula: 220 – age, which made my max heart rate 204 bpm.

I specified in my training programme that I would be working between 75% and 90% of my max heart rate so I used a heart rate app on my phone because we did not have a heart rate monitor at school and double checked it by putting my hand on my pulse and timing it with a stop watch for a minute which would give me my bpm straight after the workout. This would ensure that I was working between 150-180 bpm. Why did you apply it to your training programme?

I applied intensity in my training programme because it kept my heart rate between the 75% and 90% max heart rate. I was working at a very high intensity which caused oxygen transfer into my muscles to be harder. Due to the anaerobic training I did in my training programme, the periods of time I could work within the 75-90% max heart rate area increased and I could easily get rid of the lactic acid that had built up to use within other energy systems in my body. Principle of training: Frequency

How did you apply it to your training programme?
I ensured that before I started my training programme that I would be training on specific days within the three week period that we were given to complete the training. I wrote these dates down before I started, determining which days I would train and which days I would rest. This assured the teacher supervising and I that I had to follow this plan and stick to the days designated for training. Why did you apply it to your training programme?

I applied frequency in my training programme because it helped to balance the amount of stress I put on myself to adapt to the training and allowing enough time to rest and recover. In addition with the foods I ate within the time allocated to train, training frequently (about 4 or 5 times a week) helped my body to burn calories for my health and well-being in which my training programme was intended to improve.

Principle of training: Specificity How did you apply it to your training programme? To apply specificity in my training programme I had to do a lot of written work before I had even started training. Not only did I specify the days on which I would train or rest, I had to also specify the amount of time I was going to train or do each activity for, what type of training was going to be involved on each day, what specific activities I was going to do with or without equipment on each day and the max heart rate area I was going to be working within for the day’s session.

I did this by writing all down in my training programme before the three week period and then following each session recorded for each date. Because I was merely training to improve my health and well-being I could do a variety of training within my training programme to improve specific parts of my body e.g. plyometric training to build speed and strength in my lower body and fartlek training to improve my breathing while running. Why did you apply it to your training programme?

I applied specificity in my training programme because it was forward thinking and helped me to stick to the plan I had set out and be more organised on the training day. Because my training programme was designed specifically to improve my health and well-being I was not training for a purpose such as interval sprints to improve 100m sprints. Making sure that each training session was specific allowed me to train various parts of my body rather than training for a specific activity likt long distance running. Principle of training: Variety

How did you apply it to your training programme?
I used different methods of training within my training programme to create variety. Each training session in my training programme was different and I was using a different method of training each day e.g. On Monday 26th August 2013, I used plyometric training as my method of training followed by short interval training on Tuesday 27th August 2013.

I also mixed methods of training in my workout to create even more variety and test my body’s adaption capacity e.g. adding skipping in to a short interval workout to incorporate a plyometric aspect into my workout. Why did you apply it to your training programme?

The main reason I applied variety in my training programme was to prevent boredom from doing the same thing during the three week training period. In my training programme not one training session was the same, some consisted of elements from other sessions but none were exactly the same. I did this because it gave me a chance to work different areas of my body using different methods of training.

Training programme evaluation
Strengths of training programme.
I think that the main strength in my training programme was the variety and intensity that my training programme offered. Due to the lack of specified purpose for training, I could experiment with my trainings and evaluate on whether that session was a success or needed improvement. This proved to be a benefit for my body because I was able to work all parts of my body in the one workout rather that working on only one area of my body.

This provided minute amounts of muscle and resistance of energy system developments which was a huge benefit to my psychological health because I knew that this training was working and gave me more self-confidence. Because I added variety into my training programme, especially into my short interval training, it helped to build strength and speed faster than if I did the same training each session. Another strength within my training programme was the simplicity of it.

It was easy to follow and I didn’t need to use much equipment in the gym which makes my training programme easy to follow and someone else could easily use it to train with. Weaknesses of training programme.

Using methods of training that worked mainly my lower body was one of my weaknesses because it did not provide me with adequate upper body training. Because I used plyometric and fartlek training methods which both worked my lower body muscle groups and they did not benefit my upper body. Also the duration of the short interval training session I did were a bit too long, especially during the first week of the training period, so I was fatigued very early in the session and it was hard to carry on working at the rate I started at. What modifications would you make to the application of the biophysical principles used in your programme?

To improve the application of my biophysical principles used in my programme, I would alter it to focus on one specific physical activity but only doing different kinds of workouts that will help to improve that physical activity like doing different workouts focusing on running if I wanted to improve my running skills.

Doing this will allow me to accurately measure whether my training is working by looking at results from before I started training and after I have finished training. I would also start with low intensity workouts during the first week and then eventually elevating the intensity over the weeks following to minimise the fatigue levels while working out. By doing this it will allow my body time to adapt to the intensity and stress of the workouts.

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