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A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review Essay

Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) is a native flowering or weed that is endemic in the Philippines and other tropical countries. It is a popular herb especially for its healing properties including antidiarrhetic, antigastralgic, expectorant, stomachic, and antispasmodic, among others. Aside from these, sambong is also popular for being emmenagogues, or for stimulating menstruation or the blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus. As cure for menstrual cramps, the sambong leaves are boiled to create a sambong tea, which is then consumed by the patient. Aside from easing the painful cramps by facilitating menstruation, sambong also helps in cleaning the kidneys. The plant is actually especially known as a natural cleansing herb. Since the plant is emmenagogues, drinking the sambong tea is not advisable to pregnant women as well as women who wanted to be pregnant. Moreover, drinking sambong should also be regulated because it also has hallucinogenic effects when excessively consumed Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (Asteraceae), also known as sambong, has been used as medicine for thousands of years in Southeast Asia countries, such as China, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippines. Sambong is the most important member of the genus Blumea and is an indigenous herb oftropical and subtropical Asia, especially in China.

This plant grows on forest edges, under forests, riverbeds, valleys and grasses [4,5]. In China, it is generally a common used herb in the areas south of theYangtze River, such as Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangdong provinces and Taiwan [6–8].B. balsamifera is commonly called “Ainaxiang” and “Dafeng’ai” in Chinese and used as incensebecause it has a high level of essential oils [9]. It was originally recorded in “Bei Ji Qian Jin YaoFang” in 652 by Sun Simiao. The whole plant or its leaves were used as a crude Chinese traditional medicinal material to treat eczema, dermatitis, beriberi, lumbago, menorrhagia, rheumatism, skininjury, and as an insecticide [10]. Bing Pian and Aipian are two important traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracted from plants and have been used as one in prescriptions for centuries in China. Both of them mainly contain borneol and are similar in efficacy [11]. They are synonymous in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry nowadays. Before 2010, sambong was one of the most important plant sources for Bing Pian, but since 2010, the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China records B. balsamifera as the only plant source for Aipian [11], with a consistent efficacy with B. balsamifera medicinal materials, which could induce resuscitation, clear heat, and relieve pain.

Recently, extracts of its leaves have been verified do display various new physiological activities, such as antitumor , antifungal [13,15], radical-scavenging [16], and anti-obesity properties . The main active compound is L-borneol, which was characterized by a high volatility. Besides, essential oils, flavonoids, and terpenoids with several different biological activities were also reported . These studies could explain why this plant has multiple pharmacological effects. In this review, botanical descriptions, herbal authentications, and phytochemical constituents of B. balsamifera are covered. In addition, the previous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on its biological activities are reviewed, concentrating on antitumor, hepatoprotective, superoxide radical scavenging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antiplasmodial, antityrosinase, platelet aggregation, wound healing, anti-obesity, disease and insect resistant activities as well as enhancing percutaneous penetration.

Sambong is a half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4 meters high. Stems grow up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 20 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or appendaged. Flowering heads are stalked, yellow and numerous, 6 to 7 millimeters long, and borne on branches of a terminal, spreading or pyramidal leafy panicle. Discoid flowers are of two types: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Involucral bracts are green, narrow and hairy. Anther cells tailed at base. Fruits are achenes, dry, 1-seeded, 10-ribbed, hairy at top. – Considered anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary.Leaves used a flavoring ingredient.

Folkloric

– Leaves as poultice for abscesses.
– Decoction of roots and leaves for fevers, kidney stones, and cystitis.
– Decoction of leaves used to induced diuresis for purpose of treating kidney stones.
– Sitz-bath of boiled leaves, 500 gms to a gallon of water, for rheumatic pains of waist and back.
– Used in upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis, influenza.
– Applied while hot over the sinuses. Used for wounds and cuts. Fresh juice of leaves to wounds and cuts.
– Poultice of leaves applied to the forehead for relief of headaches. – Tea is used for colds and as an expectorant; likewise, has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal benefits. Postpartum baths.
– In Vietnam, decoction of fresh leaves used for cough and influenza or as inhalation of vapour from boiling of leaves. Poultices of pounded leaves applied to hemorrhoids; an alcoholic maceration used as liniment for rheumatism.
– 3% ethanol solution used to soothe itching.
– In Thailand, dried leaves are chopped, made into cigarettes and smoked for treating sinusitis. – For fever, leaves boiled and when lukewarm used as sponge bath.
– Decoction of roots used for fever.
– Decoction of leaves, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4 glasses daily, for stomach pains.
– In SE Asia widely used for various women problems. Postpartum, leaves are used in hot fomentation over the uterus to induce rapid involution. Also used for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding and leucorrhea.
– Roots used for menorrhagia.
– Decoction of roots and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis; also used for treatment of post-partum joint pains. – Poultice of fresh leaves applied to affected joint.
– In Chinese and Thai medicine, leaves used for treatment of septic wounds and other infections.
– A sitz-bath of boiled leaves used in the treatment of lumbago and sciatica.
– In Chinese medicine, used as carminative, stimulant, vermifuge, expectorant, and sudorific.

Preparations
• Fever: decoction of roots; boil 2 – 4 handfuls of the leaves. Use the lukewarm decoction as a sponge bath.
• Headaches: apply pounded leaves on the forehead and temples. Hold in place with a clean piece of cloth.
• Gas distention: boil 2 tsp of the chopped leaves in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes. Drink the decoction while warm. Also used for upset stomach.
• Postpartum, for mothers’ bath after childbirth.
• Boils: Apply pounded leaves as poultice daily.
• Diuretic: Boil 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Take 1/2 of the decoction after every meal, 3 times a day. Reference: Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(2):411-24. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering . 2005. 3, 3: 195-202

3. Biological Activities
3.1. Antitumor Activity

Hasegawa et al. extracted a dihydroflavonol from B. balsamifera as a result of screening among more than 150 plant materials [12]. The dihydroflavonol components showed the most significant synergism with tumor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). It enhanced the level of TRAIL-R2 promoter activity and promoted the expression of surface protein in a p53-independent manner. The ethanol extract of B. balsamifera leaves was tested on male mice to investigate its hepatoxicity. The results exhibited that the hepatic cells, sitplasm, nucleus, and sinusoid of the mice liver were damaged through some changes in the liver color and texture . The methanol extract of B. balsamifera inhibited the growth in rat and showed no cytotoxicity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The methanol extract decreased the expression of cyclin-E and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein resulting in cell cycle arrest.

Likewise, it decreased the level of the proliferation related ligand (APRIL) [60,61]. Moreover, the methanol extract of B. balsamifera was used to determine its cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines by MTT assay. There was no regular or acute cytotoxicity on the cells of HepG2, HCT-116, T-47D, NCl-H23 and CCD-18Co [62]. Saewan et al. found six compounds out of nine isolated flavonoids to have cytotoxicity against KB, MCF-7, and NCI-H187 cancer cell lines [14]. These six compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against KB, MCF-7, and NCI-H187 cancer cell lines. Three compounds were active against the KB cells with the IC50 values of 17.09, 47.72, and 17.83 μg/mL, respectively. Another three compounds exhibited a moderate activity against the NCI-H187 cells with the IC50 values of 16.29, 29.97, and 20.59 μg/mL. Luteolin-7-methyl ether showed a strong cytotoxicity against human lung cancer (NCI-H187) cell lines with an IC50 of 1.29 μg/mL and a moderate toxicity against oral cavity cancer (KB) cell lines with an IC50 of 17.83 μg/mL.

Li et al. studied the antitumor activity determined by means of 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay [13]. The three endophytic streptomycetes strains of B. balsamifera, including: YIM 56092, YIM 56093, and YIM 56099 exhibited anticancer activity. Yet, different strains displayed different antitumor activities. The YIM 56092 strain displayed a cytotoxic activity on polyketide synthases I (PKS-I) nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and P388D1. The YIM 56093 strain displayed a cytotoxic activity on PKS-Ⅱ, NRPS, and P388D1. The YIM 56099 was on the PKS-I, PKS-II, and NRPS. Fuijimoto et al., extracted blumealactone A, B, and C from sambong’s dried leaves and found them could inhibit the growth of Yoshida sarcoma at the concentration of 5–10 μg/ml [54]. Lee disclosed a medication combination including sambong (Ainaxiang) and found it could enhance the efficiency of curing hepatoma and pancreatic cancer treatments [63]. Molecules 2014, 19 9462

3.5. Anti-Microbial and Anti-Inflammation Activity

Ongsakul et al. claimed that the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of B. balsamifera displayed no significant antibacterial activity against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [73]. However, the stain of B. balsamifera, including YIM 56092 and YIM 56093, displayed a significant activity against S. epidermidis, such that YIM 56099 was active against E. coli. There seems to be no antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans [13].

Chenisolated twelve new compounds [9], four of which displayed inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 with the IC50 values of 40.06, 46.35, 57.80, and 59.44 μg/mL, respectively. Sakee et al. reported the essential oil of B. balsamifera to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150 μg/mL and 1.2 mg/mL against Bacillus cereus, S. aureus and Candida albicans, respectively [74]. Furthermore, the hexane extract inhibited Enterobacter cloacae and S. aureus. These results suggested that the extracts of B. balsamifera possessed an activity against certain kinds of infectious and toxin-producing microorganisms. It could potentially be utilized to prevent and treat microbial diseases. 3.6. Antiplasmodial Activities

According to the traditional efficacy of relieving fever, the methanol extract of B. balsamifera from Forest Research Institute Malaysia was investigated for any potential antiplasmodial activity. The extracts of roots and stems exhibited some activity against Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) with an IC50 value of (26.25 ± 2.47) μg/mL and (7.75 ± 0.35) μg/mL, respectively [75].

3.8. Platelet Aggregation Activities

The concentration of 1.26 μmol/L blumeatin displayed a significant promoting activity on the rat and human platelet aggregation caused by arachidonic acid, 5-hydotypamice, and epinephrine. However, concentrations of 0.315 and 2.52 μmol/L inhibited platelet aggregation. It suggested that the effects of blumeatin on the platelet aggregation were dependent upon the concentration used. The injection of B. balsamifera extracts decreased the blood pressure, expanded the blood vessels, and inhibited the sympathetic nervous system in order to address the high pressure and insomnia. The infusion of the plant also had the function of diuresis [67]

Mayana (Coeus blumei Benth.)

Coleus leaves are commonly known as ati-ati leaves in Malaysia. Previous study has shown that the Coleus leaves have high antioxidant activity and nutritional value. The present work is to investigate whether antioxidant, minerals and phenolic content can be extracted by boiling the leaves in water. The antioxidant was determined by mixing the extract solution with DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) solution using different ratios. Acid ascorbic acid was used as standard in measurement by Uv-Vis Spectrophotometer.

Phenolic content was measured by Uv-Vis Spectrophotometer using Gallic acid as standard. There is about 40.77 wt % of antioxidant activity, 6.256998 wt% of total phenolic content, and some minerals (magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc) existing in solution after the Coleus blumei leaves were removed. The wt% of the phenolic content is directly proportional to the wt% of antioxidant activity. The mineral concentration, antioxidant activity and phenolic content seemed to be highly correlated. As a conclusion, it is proven that the Coleus blumei leaves have high potential value for the nutritional purpose.

2.1 Definition of Coleus

Coleus is a name which derives from an earlier classification under the genus name Coleus, species of which are currently included in either Solenostemon or another genus, Plectranthus. The word Coleus come from the Greek “koleus’, meaning sheath. It is believed that there are 150 species of Coleus .It is a genus of perennial plants, native to tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, the East Indies, the Malay Archipelago, and the Philippines. Many cultivars of the Southeast Asian species Coleus have been selected for their colorful variegated leaves, usually with sharp contrast between the colors where the leaves are green, pink, yellow, maroon, and red. Typically, in Malaysia this plant known as ati-ati. The plants need a well condition of in moist-drained soil to grow, and typically grow 0.5-1 m tall, though some may grow as tall as 2 meters.

They are heat-tolerant, though they do less well in full sun in subtropical areas than in the shade. The leaves of the green type are often eaten raw with bread and butter. The chopped leaves are also used as a substitute for sage (Salvia officinalis Linn.) in stuffing. C. aromaticus is used for seasoning meat dishes and in food products (Uphof, 1959) while a decoction of its leaves is administered in cases of chronic cough and asthma (CSIR, 1992). It is considered to be an antispasmodic, stimulant and stomachic and is used for the treatment of headache, fever, epilepsy and dyspepsia (Khory &Katrak, 1999; Morton, 1992)

. 2.2 Antioxidant

An antioxidant in food is really important as it can protect human body from free radicals activity. It is also has capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. When electrons are transferred form a substance to an oxidizing agent, it called as oxidation reaction. Free radicals can be produced during the Oxidation reactions, where the start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols or polyphenols. Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. As oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

However, it is unknown whether oxidative stress is the cause or the consequence of disease. Antioxidants are also widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements in the hope of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. Although some studies have suggested antioxidant supplements have health benefits, other large clinical trials did not detect any benefit for the formulations tested, and excess supplementation may be harmful In addition to these uses in medicine, antioxidants have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventing the degradation of rubber and gasoline. Current research into free radicals has confirmed that foods rich in antioxidants play an essential role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. As far as our literature survey could ascertain, antioxidant activities of this plant have not previously been published. Hence, the previous work investigated the possible antioxidative effects of freeze-dried powder obtained from aqueous extract of fresh leaves of C. aromaticus.

In this study, they had examined the antioxidant activity of CAE (C.aromaticus hydroalcoholic extract) employing various in vitro assay systems, such as the β- carotene-linoleate model system, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl)/superoxide/ nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power and iron ion chelation, in order to understand the usefulness of this plant as a foodstuff as well as in medicine. 2.2.1 Antioxidant Assay using a β-carotene-linoleate Model System On the previous experiment, the antioxidant activity of the extract was measured by the bleaching of β-carotene. By adding CAE and BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene) at various concentrations, it can prevent the bleaching of β-carotene to different degrees. β-Carotene in this model system undergoes rapid discoloration in the absence of an antioxidant. This is because of the coupled oxidation of β-carotene and linoleic acid, which generates free radicals.

The linoleic acid free radical, formed upon the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from one of its diallylic methylene groups, which attacks the highly unsaturated β-carotene molecules. As a result, β-carotene will be oxidized and broken down in part; subsequently, the system looses its chromophore and characteristic orange colour, which can be monitored spectrophotometrically. The presence of different antioxidants can hinder the extent of β-carotene bleaching by neutralizing the linoleate free radical and other free radicals formed in the system (Jayaprakasha, Singh, & Sakariah, 2001).

It also showed that the CAE was found to hinder the extent of β-carotene bleaching by neutralizing the linoleate-free radical and other free radicals formed in the system. In comparison, the CAE showed an appreciable antioxidant activity of 83.0% at 250 μg/ml, while BHT, a synthetic antioxidant had 89.6% antioxidant activity at 100 μg/ml. Table 2.1: Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of C. aromaticus in β-carotenelinoleate System Sample Concentration (μg/ml) Antioxidant activity (%) Aqueous extract 125 53.2 ± 1.04

250 83.0 ± 1.33
500 91.3 ± 1.41
BHT 50 64.2 ± 1.81
100 89.6 ± 1.52
200 95.3 ± 1.33
2.2.2 DPPH Radical-scavenging Activity

The CAE showed a concentration-dependent antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with an EC50 value of 210 μg/ml (Table 2). DPPH is usually used as a substrate to evaluate antioxidative activity of antioxidants (Oyaizu, 1986). The method is based on the reduction of methanolic DPPH solution in the presence of a hydrogen donating antioxidant, due to the formation of the non-radical form DPPH-H by the reaction. The extract was able to reduce the stable radical DPPH to the yellow-coloured diphenylpicrylhydrazine. It has been found that cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, polyhydroxy aromatic compounds (e.g., hydroquinone, pyrogallol, gallic acid), and aromatic amines (e.g., p-phenylene diamine, p aminophenol), reduce and decolorise 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl by their hydrogen donating ability (Blois, Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano (ərĕgˈənō) [key], name for several herbs used for flavoring food.

A plant of the family Labiatae (mint family),Origanum vulgare, also called Spanish thyme and wild marjoram, is the usual source for the spice sold as oregano in the Mediterranean countries and in the United States. Its flavor is similar to that of marjoram but slightly less sweet. In Spain and Italy many other Origanum species are also grown as oregano. A related herb ( Coleus amboinicius ) of the same family, called suganda in its native Indomalaysia, is known as oregano in the Philippines and Mexico, where it is a popular flavoring. Several other herbs also provide spices called oregano, e.g., species ofLippia and Lantana of the verbena family. In all cases the flavoring is made from the dried herbage. Oregano is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Lamiales, family Labiatae .

All rights reserved. genus Origanum is a member of the Lamiaceae family and has a complex taxonomy [1]. O. vulgare plays a primary role among culinary herbs in world trade [2]. It is distributed all over Europe, West and Central Asia up to Taiwan [3]. The use of O. vulgare as medicinal plant is believed to be due to biological properties of p-cymene and carvacrol. Bernáth [4] has noted that there are intras- pecific taxa of oregano having no “oregano” character that is based on the presence of carvacrol. Oregano is the common name for a general aroma and flavour primarily derived from more than 60 plant species used all over the world as a spice [5]. Four main groups of plants com- monly used for culinary purposes can be distinguished, i.e., Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart); Spanish origano (Coridohymus capitatus (L.) [2]; Turkish oregano (Origanum onites L.); and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens HBK [6].

Origano is the commercial name of those Origanum species that are rich in the phenolic monoterpenoids, mainly carvacrol and occasionally thymol [7]. A number of chemically related compounds i.e. p-cymene; γ-terpinene, carvacrol methyl ethers, thymol methyl ethers, carvacrol acetates and thymol acetates; as well as p-cymenene, p-cy- men-8-ol, p-cymen-7-ol, thymoquinone, and thymohy- droquinone are present in the oil of Origanum vulgare which is extremely rich in essential oils (up to 7%) with carvacrol as a major constituent present in very high quantity (75% – 95%), followed by p-cymene (4% – 14%) and γ-terpinene (1% – 10%). It seems possible that the uses of the plant in traditional medicine can be attributed to the known biological properties of p-cymene and car- vacrol [8]. Many of the studies confirmed the medicinal effects of oregano for human health. The Origanum spe- cies, which are rich in essential oils, have been used for thousands of years as spices and as local medicines in traditional medicine [9].

About 20 European public in- stitutions hold genetic resources of different species of oregano [10]. Marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.) is one of medicinal aromatic plants found wholesale almost in all areas of Albania, which is a perennial plant usually grows in dry area in smaller groups. Oregano plants are collect- ed from natural habitats and used as raw materials in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry [11]. But many countries start to cultivate it in different areas. In botanical aspects, the oregano populations differ from one to another, that is they vary depending on the content and composition of essential oils [12].

From the quantity and quality of essential oils the values of this plant were determined [11,12]. The different results showed that the effects of oregano antioxidante are associated with high content of essential oils, thymol and carvacrols, and these are the main ingredients in oregano oil. The con- tents of Thymol and Carvacrol in oregano give it differ- ent properties [13]. According to the studies, carvacrol is a powerful bactericidal agent, and provides protection against mold and other common bacteria. The main ob- jective in our study was to investigate the different re- gions and to find the variation for oil content in oregano plant populations. The research expedition was organized in 2012 in the whole territory of Albania. During this expedition are identified and collected 62 accessions.

At each location were taken of the 50 samples which derived a main rep- resentativ sample. From the total samples collected, were selected 16 samples mostly widespread of natural popu- lations of origano (Origanum vulgare L. sp. vulgare and sp. hirtum). Those samples you perform analyzes for content of oils and their components. The confirmation of 53 essential oil was made to analyses: β-Pinene, p- Cymene, γ-Terpinene, Linalool, Terpinene-4-ol, Thymol, Carvacrol dhe Caryophyllene oxide. The overground parts of the flowering plants (20 – 25 cm from the top) were collected during the summer of 2012. The plant material was air dried, packed in paper bags and kept in a dark and cool place until analysis. Plant identity was verified and voucher specimens were deposited at the Institute of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Skopje.

2.2. Essential Oil Isolation

Essential oil isolation from oregano was performed by hydro distillation in all-glass Clevenger apparatus fol- lowing this procedure: 20 g of the plant material was stored in 500 mL flask where 250 mL of water R was used as distillation liquid and 0.5 mL of xylene R was added in the graduate tube. The Distillation was per- formed for 2.5 h with a rate of 2 – 3 mL/min. GC and GC-MS analyses: Agilent 7890А Gas Chro- matography system equipped with flame ionization de- tector (FID) and Agilent 5975C Mass Quadrupole detec- tor as well as capillary flow technology which enable simultaneous analysis of the sample on both detectors. HP-5 ms (30 m × 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 m) cap- illary column was used. Operating conditions were as follows: GC Method for essential oils: oven temperature 60°C (0 min), 3°C/min to 240°C (held for 1 min) and 10°C/min to 280°C (held for 1 min); helium as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min; injector T = 220°C and FID T = 270°C. 1 L of injection volume was injected at split ratio 1:1.

The mass spectrometry conditions were: ionization voltage 70 eV, ion source temperature 230°C, transfer line temperature 280°C and mass range from 50 – 500 Da. The MS was operated in scan mode. GC Method for Head Space: oven temperature 60°C, 20°C/min to 280°C; helium as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min; injector T = 260°C and FID T = 270°C. 1000 L of injec- tion volume was injected at split ratio 1:1. The mass spectrometry conditions were: ionization voltage 70 eV, ion source temperature 230°C, transfer line temperature 280°C and mass range from 50 – 500 Da. The MS was operated in scan mode. Head Space method: Incubation Temperature 80°C, Incubation Time 5.00 m:ss, Syringe Temperature 85°C, Agitator Speed 500 rpm, Fill Speed 500 μl/s, Pullup Delay 500 ms, Inject to GC, Injection speed 500 μl/s, Pre Inject Delay 500 ms, Post Inject De- lay 500 ms, Flush Time (m:ss) 0:10, GC Run time (m:ss) 10:00.

Identification of the components: Identification of the components was made by comparing mass spectra of components in essential oils with those from Nist, Wiley and Adams mass spectra libraries, by AMDIS (Auto- mated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System) and by comparing literature and estimated Ko-vat’s (retention) indices that were determined using mix-ture of homologous series of normal alkanes from C9 to C25 in hexane, under the same above mentioned condi- tions. The percentage ratio of the components was com- puted by the normalization method of the GC/FID peak areas and average values were taken into further consid- eration (n = 3).

2.3. Statistical Analyses

All statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software (version 15.0, SPSS) [14]. Means values and variation coefficients were used in the statistical analyses. Effects of the studied traits were evaluated by ANOVA. In order to assess the differentiation of plants of oregano based on all variables that were measured, the Canonical Discriminate Analyses (CDA) was applied

Psidium guajava (Guava):

Chronic degenerative diseases have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized and developing countries. Many studies have shown that plant can be helpful to prevent or treat diseases. Psidium guajava is a small medicinal tree that is native to South America and Brazil is among the world’s top producers and most of the country’s production is destined for the food industry. It is popularly known as guava and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant throughout the world for a number of ailments. The aim of this review is to present some chemical compounds in P. guajava and their pharmacological effects. The main constituents of guava leaves are phenolic compounds, isoflavonoids, gallic acid, catechin, epicathechin, rutin, naringenin, kaempferol. The pulp is rich in ascorbic acid, carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin).

The seeds, skin and barks possess glycosids, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. All parts of the plant have been used for different purposes: hepatoprotection, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, analgesic, endothelial progenitor cells, anti-stomachache and anti-diarrhea. P. guajava has many effects on health and that it should be researched more extensively in clinical trials. Furthermore leaves, seeds and peel are treated as wastes by the food processing industry and are discarded, so their use may reduce the disposal of these parts of guava as pollutants.

Psidium guajava; Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Cancer; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia

Industrialization has led to many modifications in the lifestyle of the world’s populations, giving rise to increase the indices of several diseases, including chronic degenerative diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, reducing the quality of life and increasing costs on hospitalizations, medications and other public health interventions.

Studies have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits, vegetables and seeds can be helpful to prevent the risk factors of many diseases due to the bioactive compounds. Many plants have been used for the purpose of reducing risk factors associated with the occurrence of chronic disorders and for many other purposes

Psidium guajava L. is a small medicinal tree that is native to South America. It is popularly known as guava (family Myrtaceae) and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant throughout the world for a number of ailments. There are two most common varieties of guava: the red (P. guajava var. pomifera) and the white (P. guajava var. pyrifera)

All parts of this tree, including fruits, leaves, bark, and roots, have been used for treating stomachache and diarrhea in many countries. Leaves, pulp and seeds are used to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, and as an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, as a cough sedative, anti-diarrheic, in the management of hypertension, obesity and in the control of diabetes mellitus. It also possesses anticancer properties . The seeds are used as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, anti-allergic and anticarcinogenic activity.

Brazil is among the world’s top producers of guava and most of the country’s production is destined for the food industry to produce candies, juices, jams and frozen pulp. As result of the fruit process there is a discard of the leaves, seeds, part of the peel and pulp fraction not separated in the physical depulping process.

The high cost of pharmaceutical medications conduces to the search for alternative medicines to treat many ailments. In view of this, studies are necessary to confirm the effects of medicinal plants. The aim of this review is to show that several studies have demonstrated the presence of many different chemical compounds in P. guajava and their pharmacological effects.

Medical Properties and Composition of Guava Pulp

The main constituents of guava are vitamins, tanins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, essential oils, sesquiterpene alcohols and triterpenoid acids. These and other compounds are related to many health effects of guava .

Some authors have found high concentrations of carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin), vitamin C and polyphenols in guava pulp. Lycopene has been correlated with the prevention of cardiovascular damage because of its positive effects on dyslipidemia . Ascorbic acid is recognized for its important antioxidant effects .

Shu et al. isolated nine triterpenoids from guava fruit: ursolic acid; 1beta, 3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid; 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs- 12-en-28-oic acid; 3beta,19alpha-dihydroxyurs-12en-28-oic acid; 19a-hydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyrano- side; 3beta, 23-dihydroxy urs-12-en-28-oic acid; 3beta, 19alpha, 23beta- tri-hydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid; 2alpha, 3beta,19alpha, 23beta-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and 3alpha,19alpha,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs -12-en-28-oic acid. Ursolic acid and other triterpenoids are associated with anti-cancer properties.

Shu et al. found three benzophenone glycosides in ripe edible fruits of P. guajava L: 2, 6-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone; 2, 6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-4-O-(6’’-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone and 2, 6-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-O-(6’’-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone. Benzophenone glycosides have inhibitory effect on triglycerides accumulation.

Thuaytong and Anprung found antioxidant activity in guava and the major constituents identified in white and red guavas were ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin equivalents, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl benzoate, ß-caryophyllene, (E)-3-hexenyl acetate and α-bisabolene. The antioxidant properties of the guava pulp can be related to anti-cancer effects.

Studies with humans have found that the consumption of guava for a period of 12 weeks reduced blood pressure by 8%, total cholesterol levels by 9%, triacylglycerides by almost 8%, and induced an 8% increase in the levels of HDL-c.

Farinazzi et al.showed that animals treated with guava pulp juice had significantly lower body weight, glycemia, cholesterol and triglycerides levels and significantly augmented the levels of HDL-c when compared to the animals from the control group.

Lyophilized pulp of P. guajava in diabetic rats induces to significant hypoglycemic effects probably due to its antioxidant activity of compounds
present in the pulp.

Medical Properties and Composition of Guava Leaves

Guava leaf extract has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. These effects are probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.  Jiménez-Escrig et al., Wang et al. and Haida et. reported the presence of higher amounts of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity in the leaves of white (Psidium guajava var. pyrifera L.) and red guava (Psidium guajava var. pomifera L.) when compared with other vegetable species. Wu et al, Melo et al. and Chen et al found gallic acid, catechins, epicatechins, rutin, naringenin and kaempferol in the leaves.

Studies have shown that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin inhibit pancreatic cholesterol esterase, which decreases cholesterol levels. Catechins are important as a preventive treatment for diabetes type 2 and obesity. Quercetin has been associated to decreased mortality from heart disease and decreased incidence of stroke. Quercetin presents hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activity. Rutin is effective in the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation in adipocytes. Naringenin and kaempferol can promote moderate cytostatic activity against all cell lines and kaempferol can be useful as anticancer .

Fu et al.elucidated the structure of three novel sesquiterpenoid- based meroterpenoids of psidials A-C found in guava leaves. Matsuzak et al.isolated two new benzophenone galloyl glycosides, guavinosides A and B, and a quercetin galloyl glycoside, guavinoside C as well as five known quercetin glycosides from guava leaves. The structures of the novel glycosides were elucidated to be 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (1, guavinoside A); 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (2, guavinoside B), and quercetin 3-O-(5’’-O-galloyl)-alpha-L: -arabinofuranoside (3, guavinoside C).

Kim et al.related that the guava leaves contain ascorbic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, epicatechin, xanthine, protocatechuic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, malonic acid, trans-aconitic acid, maleic acid and cis-aconitic acid.

Ghosh et al.isolated two terpenoids from the leaf extract of P. guajava (betulinic acid and lupeol) and reported their potential antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. Betulinic acid and lupeol can be used in the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular desease, obesity and atherosclerosis.

Shao et al. isolated two terpenoids from guava leaves: Psiguadials A and B, two novel sesquiterpenoid-diphenylmethane meroterpenoids with unusual skeletons, along with a pair of known epimers, psidial A and guajadial.

Shu et al.identified one diphenylmethane, one benzophenone, and eight flavonoids from guava fresh leaves(2,6-dihydroxy-3-formaldehyde-5-methyl-4-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-diphenylmethane; 2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone; kaempferol; quercetin; quercitrin; isoquercitrin; guaijaverin; avicularin; hyperoside and reynoutrin. Guaijaverin has high potential antiplaque agent by inhibiting the growth of the Streptococcus mutans. Avicularin and guaijaverin work as urease inhibitors (against Helicobacter pylori urease).

Shao et al. isolated four new triterpenoids, psiguanins A-D (1-4), and with 13 known compounds from the leaves of guava.  Guava aqueous leaf extract showed anti-trypanosomal properties in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei.  Rahim et al.evaluated the effects of aqueous mixture and water soluble methanol extract from guava leaves and bark against multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholera and found strong antibacterial activity. They concluded that this plant offers potential for controlling epidemics of cholera. Birdi et al. and Birdi et al. related that P. guajava leaves have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action (as antigiardial and antirotaviral activity) that could be effective in controlling diarrhea due to a wide range of pathogens. The antimicrobial activity can be linked to the presence of flavonoids extracted from guava leaves.

Deguchi and Miyazaki reported that guava leaves infusion not only reduced postprandial glycemia and improved hyperinsulinemia in murine models but also contributed to reduce hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoadiponectinemia in the animals of their study.

Rutin and kaempferol found in guava leaves are compounds related to the decrease of HMG-CoA reductase activity in hepatic tissue and improve lipid profiles. Akinmoladun et al. studied methanol extracts of some fruits, including P. guajava, and demonstrated that there is a good correlation between total phenolic contents and reductive potential and a fair correlation between total phenolic contents and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity.

Several studies have shown that aqueous extract of Psidium guajava contains components with LDL-c antiglycation activity, suggesting its contribution to the prevention of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases Other studies have found cardioprotective effects of aqueous extract of P. guajava in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts, primarily through their radical-scavenging actions.

Ojewole identified the presence of phenolic compounds in the leaves demonstrating their hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects on diabetic rats treated with aqueous leaf extract. Soman et al. reported a decline in the levels of glycated hemoglobin and fructosamines, as well as a significant reduction in the glycemic levels of diabetic rats treated with guava leaf extract. Singh and Marar studied the effects of Psidium guajava leaves on the inhibition of the activity intestinal glycosidases related with postprandial hyperglycemia, suggesting its use for the treatment of individuals with type 2 diabetes.Other studies have demonstrated that guava leaf and peel extracts also had hypoglycemic effects on experimental models drug-induced to severe conditions of diabetes.

Wu et al.found that the phenolic compounds, gallic acid, catechins and quercetins in guava leaves inhibited the glycation of proteins suggesting its use for the prevention of diabetes complications.The Psiguadials A, B and guajadial isolated by Shao et al. exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the growth of human hepatoma cells. Kim et al. related that the guava leaves contain compounds that promote free radical scavenging activity showing promising antioxidant properties.

Dutta and Das identified significant anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of guava leaves in experimental models, while Kawakami et al. observed the antiproliferative activity of the leaves through inhibition of the catalytic activity of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases involved in the inflammatory process. Guava budding leaves aqueous extract possesses an extremely high content of poly phenolic and isoflavonoids and suppresses the cell migration and the angiogenesis. In view of this, clinically it has the potential to be used as an adjuvant anti-cancer chemo preventive . Matsuzak et al. isolated phenolic glycosides from guava leaves and showed significant inhibitory activity against histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, and nitric oxide production from a murine macrophage-like cell line.

Roy and Das studied the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts of P. guajava (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent and observed that the best effects came from guava methanolic leaf extract that significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) and bilirubin.

P. guajava leaves exhibit high capacity to reduced polymerization and aggregation of sickle cell hemoglobin molecule. This molecule is a product of a defective genetic code of hemoglobin molecule and is prone to deoxygenation-induced polymerization and has low insolubility. The development of chemical modification agents that reduce the tendency of sickle cell hemoglobin molecule to aggregate represents an important chemotherapeutic goal.

Guava extract leaves can be responsible for membrane stabilizing effect on sickle erythrocytes that are susceptible to endogenous free radical-mediated oxidative damage. This effect can be attributed to the flavonoids, triterpenoids and host of other secondary plant metabolites .

Chen et al. found that aqueous extract of guava budding leaves possess anti-prostate cancer activity in a cell line model and concluded they are promising anti-androgen-sensitive prostate cancer agent.

Han et al. studied the effects of P. guajava ethyl acetate extract on atopic dermatitis and found that it inhibits chemokine expression in keratinocytes what suggests this extract can have possible therapeutic application in atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases.

Methanol extracts of the leaves can also be useful in the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders possibly due to the presence of volatile oil, flavonoids and saponins
Methanolic extract of guava leaves can exhibit wound healing effects and this property can be explained by the presence of tannins and flavonoids.
Guava leaves extract also can show anti cough effects as shown by Jaiarj et al.
Medical Properties and Composition of Guava Discarded Products

As told before, the fruit process results in the discard of the leaves, seeds, part of the peel and pulp. Some studies showed the presence of total phenolic compounds in the agroindustrial wastes (seeds, skin and pulp) of guava, confirming its antioxidant activity .

Leaves, seeds and peels of fruits have significant proportions of bioactive compounds with beneficial physiological and metabolic properties. Its antioxidants can control body weight and biochemical variables like glycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and other risks of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant properties of the guava seeds extracts can be associated to anti-cancer effects on both hematological and solid neoplasms and the antioxidant properties of the guava peel can be related to anti-cancer effects.

Castro-Vargas et al.and Ojewole extracted and identified significant levels of carotenoids and total phenolic compounds from guava seeds. Seeds exhibit antimicrobial, gastrointestinal and anticarcinogenic activities probably due to the presence of phenolic glycosides in the composition.

Farinazzi et al. showed that Wistar rats treated with guava seed had significantly lower glycemia, cholesterol and triglycerides levels and body weight. These animals significantly increased HDL-c levels.

Rai et al. reported hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of lyophilized guava peel.  Psidium guajava stem-bark extract can be used to treat malaria because it presents antiplasmodial activities possibly due to the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, seccoirridoids and terpenoids.

Related study

Many researchers have been demonstrating the presence of a wide variety of bioactive compounds in the leaf, seed and bark of Psidium guajava that are capable of showing beneficial effects on human health. If we consider that chronic degenerative diseases have reached epidemic proportions in many countries and increase the socio-economic burden for the public health system, it is necessary to find non-allopathic alternatives that minimize risk factors of these diseases and help in the treatment. Furthermore, population consumes medicinal plants also to treat other kind or diseases because of high costs of allopathic medications.

The studies using P. guajava bring information that may provide validation for its medicinal uses but it should be researched more extensively in clinical trials so it could be used for prevention and as an adjuvant in the treatment of numerous disorders.

Nevertheless we should emphasize the importance of experimental and clinical studies involving more specific factors related to the bioavailability of the compounds, as well as the effective and safe doses to be used by individuals for the prevention and treatment of various disorders.

Katakataka( bryopphyllum pinnatum) Constituents

• Phytochemical screenings have yielded alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, butadienolides, lipids, and organic acids. • Yields arachidic acid, astragalin, behenic acid, beta amyrin, benzenoids, bersaldegenin, beta-sitosterol, bryophollenone, bryophollone, bryophyllin,caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, steroids, and taraxerol. • Phytochemical evaluation of leaf extract yielded bryophyllum A, B and C, a potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate. • Bufadienolide has been reported to be poisonous with digitalis-toxicity type cardiac effects (slowing of heart rate, heart blocks and potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. • Bryophillin A, a bufadienolide compound, has shown anti-tumor promoting activity. • Leaves yield malic acid.

Fractionation of an EtOAc extract yielded seven kaempferol rhamnosides: kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(3-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-D- glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, afzelin, and α-rhamnoisorobin. (19) Properties

• Leaves considered astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, refrigerant, emollient, counterirritant, mucilaginous, vulnerary, depurative, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, and tonic. • Pharmacologic studies have showed pharmacologic properties: immunomodulatory, CNS depressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, sedative, muscle relaxant.

Folkloric

– Leaves used as astringent, antiseptic, and counterirritant against poisonous insect bites. – Pounded fresh material is applied as a poultice for a variety of conditions: Sprains, eczema, infections, burns, carbuncle and erysipelas. – Leaves, made pliable by hold over fire, are applied to wounds, bruises, boils; also, used as poultice or power in bad ulcers. – Juice is mixed with lard and used for diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, and phthisis.

– Pounded leaves are applied as poultices to the soles of the feet to stop hemorrhages. – Leaves are used as topicals in dislocation, ecchymoses, callosities. – Leaves, pounded and mixed with salt, used as plaster and applied to stomach to relieve enuresis – For boils, the whole leaf is pressed by hand, to and fro, until it becomes moist with the leaf extract. A small opening is made in the middle of the leaf which is then placed on the boil with hole over the pointing of the abscess. – For asthma, leaves of leaves places in hot water for 15 minutes, then juice squeezed out of the leaves, and drunk.

– Juice of leaves used in bilious diarrhea and lithiasis.

– In Ayurveda, useful in vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, cuts, wounds, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia, boils, sloughing ulcers, burns and scalds, diarrhea, dysentery, headaches, vomiting, bronchitis.
– In Puerto Rico, leaf juice used as diuretic.
– Leaves are rubbed or tied on the head for headaches.
– Leaf decoction usually taken to lower blood pressure.
– Leaf juice used for earache and ophthalmia.
– In Sierre Leon, cough medicine is made from the roots.
– In Brazil leaves, heated over fire and mixed with oil, are used as emollient and refrigerant for facial swelling associated with neuralgia or tooth trouble. Also, used for asthma and bronchitis. – In Jamaica, leaves used for coughs and colds. Sometimes, it is mixed with salt or honey, for headaches, colds, bronchial affections, and hypertension. Heated leaves used for swellings and abscesses. – In Africa, used for earaches, eye problems, and as diuretic. – In China used for rheumatoid arthritis, bruises, burns and ulcers. – In Nigeria, plant is considered sedative, wound-healing, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and cough suppressant. Leaf juice used to treat boils and skin ulcers. Plant used for intestinal parasites, bronchitis, pneumonia.

Banana (Musa sapientum Linn.)

The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. The main or upright stem is actually a pseudostem, growing from a corm, to a height of 6 to 7.6 meters. Leaves are spirally arranged, as long as 2.7 meters and 60 cm wide, fragile and easily torn by wind, with the familiar frond look. Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas; the pseudostem dies after fruiting, as offshoots usually develop from the base of the plant. Each pseudostem produces a single inflorescence, the banana heart, containing many bracts between rows of flowers. The banana fruits develop from the heart, in a hanging cluster made up of tiers (hands), up to 20 fruit to a tier.

Distribution

Cultivated throughout the Philippines in many varieties.
Constituents

• Juice of the flower-stem contains potash, soda, lime, magnesia, alumina, chlorine, sulfuric anhydride, silica and carbon anhydride. • High potassium content – a medium banana contains about 450 mg of potassium. (Because of potassium homeostasis in the body, 40K ingested is balanced by 40K potassium excreted. The net dose of a banana is zero.) • Preliminary phytochemical screening of fresh steam juice yielded vitamin B, oxalic acid, sulphate, vitamin C, starch, tannin, glycosides, phenolic compounds, gum mucilage. • Study yielded 6 triterpenes: 6 triterpenes: cyclomusalenol, cyclomusalenone, 24-methylenecycloartanol, stigmast-7-methylenecycloartanol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol, lanosterol, and a-amyrin and eight flavonoids. – Mineral content and nutritional value of varieties (lakatan, latundan, saba, and bungalan)

Properties

• Demulcent, nutrient, cooling, astringent, antiscorbutic, antifebrile, restorative, emmenagogue, cardialgic, styptic.
• The ripe fruit is laxative, demiulcent, and nutrient.
• Unripe fruit is cooling and astringent.
• Dried fruit considered antiscorbutic.
• Root is antibilious and alterative.
• Juice of the plant is styptic.
• Because of its high potassium content, bananas are naturally slightly radioactive, more than other fruits.
• Good sources of vitamin A, fair sources of vitamin B, and good sources of vitamin C. All are deficient in calcium and phosphorus, and only fair in iron.
• Studies have attributed biologic activities: antiulcerogenic, antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, antidiarrheic, antitumoral, antimutagenic, antihypertensive. Parts used

Leaves, fruit.
Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
– The “puso” (male inflorescence) of saba is extensively used as a vegetable.
– Unripe fruit is sugared and candied.
– Ripe fruits also used in making brandy, rum, and wine.
– Rich in vitamins A, B, and C; a fair source of iron.
Folkloric
• Young leaves used for cool dressing of inflamed and blistered surfaces and as cool application for headaches.
• Powdered roots used for anemia and cachexia.
• Mucilage prepared from seeds used for catarrhal and mild inflammatory forms of diarrhea.
• Juice of tender roots used as mucilage for checking hemorrhages from the genitalia and air passages.
• In China, juice of roots used as antifebrile and restorative.
• Juice of the trunk applied to scalp to increase hair growth and prevent hair from falling.
• In West Africa, used for diarrhea.
• In Gambia, sap of inflorescence used for earaches.
• In French Guiana, flowers used as emmenagogue.
• In the Gold Coast, sap from roots given as enema for diarrhea.
• In Cambodia, Java and Malaya, juice from trunk used for dysentery and diarrhea.
• Juice from flowers, mixed with curds, for dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia.
• Flour made of green bananas used for dyspepsia with flatulence and acidity.
• Ripe fruit, mixed with half its weight in tamarinds and a little salt, is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhea,
• Cooked flower used for diabetes. Flowers also used as cardialgic.
• Sap of the flower used for earaches.
• In Western Ghat in India, leaves are used for bandaging cuts, blisters and ulcers.
• Ripe bananas combined with tamarind and common salt used for dysentery.
• In traditional medicine in India, used for diabetes.
• In South-Western Nigeria, green fruits used for diabetes.

Others

• Papermaking / Clothing: Plant fibers used in the manufacture of paper and clothes. A related species, Musa textilis (Abaca, Manila hemp) is produced on a commercial scale for its fiber use in the manufacture of paper. • Wrapping / Cooking: Leaves used for wrapping food for cooking. Leaves used for polishing floors, lining pots for cooking rice.

Studies

• Hypoglycemic / Flowers: Study on the chloroform extract of M sapientum flowers showed hypoglycemic activity with significant reduction of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and improvement in glucose tolerance. • Hypoglycemic/ Fruits: Study on the green fruits of M paradisiaca indicate it possesses hypoglycemic activity and lends credence to its Nigerian folkloric use for diabetes. • Antioxidant: (1) Musa sapientum flower extract showed improved antioxidant activity in diabetics. (2) A study of extracts of M. sapientum var. sylvesteris showed concentration-dependent scavenging effects, with antioxidant activity stronger than that of vitamin C. • Gastroprotective: Study on the unripe plantain extract of M sapientum and unripe pawpaw meal showed alteration of the gastric phospholipid profile and through a prostaglandin pathway may have a profound effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa and implications for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

• Flowers / Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant: Study showed banana flower extract to have an antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant properties, comparatively more effective than glibenclamide. • Analgesic: Study of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of Musa sapientum showed central analgesic action. • Wound healing: Study of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Musa sapientum showed wound healing properties through increased wound breaking strength, reduced glutathione, decrease percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation. Wound healing was probably through antioxidant effect and various biochemical parameters. • Anti-Ulcer Activity: Study of dried powder of banana pulp showed anti-ulcerogenic activity, esp in the unripe, mature green plantain banana (var. paradisiaca).

• Banana Peels Phytochemicals: Study showed the peel can be a good source of carbohydrates and fiber. The study of anti-nutrients showed generally low values except for saponins. Study suggests, properly processed and exploited, the peel could be a good source of livestock feed, providing a high quality and cheap source of carbohydrates and minerals. • Antimicrobial Activity: (1) Study of ethanolic extracts of unripe bananas, lemon grass and turmeric showed antimicrobial activity at stock concentrations. Unripe bananas showed a high antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. (2) Ethanol extract of Musa sapientum showed antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms

– Gram-positive and Gram-negative bateria (B. subtilis, B. cereus, and E coli.) • Anti-Helicobacter pylori / Anti-Internalisation Activity: In a study of 9 Thai plant extracts used for gastric ailments, Musa sapientum and Allium sativum showed marked anti-internalisation and present a potential benefit in H pylori , prevention eradication, therapy and avoidance of antibiotic resistance. • Anticonvulsant: Study in mice showed AMS prevented convulsions possibly through prevention of inhibition of vitamin B6 metabolism with subsequent increase in GABA synthesis in the CNS or due to facilitatory effect on GABAergic neurons – an effect mediated by the antioxidant potential of phytoconstituents present in the AMS.

• Indigenous Antiulcer Activity / Leucocyanidin: Study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract of M. sapientum. Study yielded an active compound–a monomeric flavonoid, leucocyanidin, that showed anti-ulcerogenic activity, in congruous with standard drug esomeprazole. • Antioxidant / Antibacterial /Hemagglutination Inhibition: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of M. sapientum var. Sylvesteris showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. It also showed hemagglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. • Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity: A methanolic extract of M. sapientum L subsp. sylvestris showed good antimicrobial activity the pulp, moderate activity with the peel, and insignificant activity with the seed. On cytotoxicity evaluation using Brine Shrimp Lethality, pulp>seed>peel.


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